Archive for the ‘hand skin’ Category
Aristole described: ‘the hand is the organ of the organs’. Later, in medical science the hand became recognized to represent the most differentiated external part of the body. This implicates that an assessment of the hand is a rather complex (arbitrary) task. In order to simplify the task an ‘assessment chart’ was developed based on the principles described by Multi-Perspective Palm Reading.
The ‘assessment chart’ (see above) presents an overview of 36 key-features of the hand, the significance of all individual hand markers involved has been confirmed in scientific studies – though the significance of course varies and depends on the theme for which a hand feature is used to make a (hand) assessment.
The chart is divided in 8 sections, one for each of the 7 hand dimensions (including: dermatoglyphics, finger length, lines, motorics, nails, shape & skin) – NOTICE: the dimension ‘dermatoglyphics’ is divided in a sub-section describing the fingerprints + a sub-section describing palmar dermatoglyphics.
Learn more about the background, purpose & principles of Multi-Perspective Palm Reading!
Every year almost 3 billions visitors are welcomed in chinese hospitals. Smart Consulting Service presents an alternative virtual solution in order to improve and optimize the doctors-patients contact. The service e.g. includes an assessment of heart rate and temperature via the hands. What else will the future bring?
Smart Consulting Service has been designed to reconcile patients and doctors. The service is located at the hospital’s entrance, it allows people to register and pre-consult themselves before seeing a doctor. Except for providing advice and guidance, the human-sized virtual assistant will guide patients through the pre-consulting process, all the way from there personal informations to there health recommendations. A touchable display, micro and camera’s technology will detect people’s disease and diagnose their vital signs. Once the pre-diagnosis step complete, the service will guide patient to make an appointment with the appropriate or favorite doctor. Smart consulting service will send patient’s health information and first-hand diagnosis to there assigned doctor, therefore making the consulting process more efficient and enjoyable.
The video below demonstrates how Smart Consulting Service works in China.
In may 2011 a detailed report was presented at this blog about how a ‘multi-perspective’ approach to the hand can be used to find the most essential hand characteristics in Marfan syndrome. Dozens of comments, questions and suggestions were made in response.
Time for a more detailed report:
The brand new ‘Marfan Syndrome Hand Test’ (see above) provides you a unique opportunity to make a first check-up for Marfan syndrome via your own hands!
The most discriminating hand featured typical for Marfan syndrome are included in this test – including: various aspects of arachnodactyly (spider fingers), which manifest via the hand shape; various guidelines for recognizing skin hyperelasticity, which relates to the hand skin quality; and a short list of hand signs for hypermobility, which relates to the hand motorics.
More details about the hand in Marfan syndrome and the background of this test are presented at HandResearch.com:
(Your thoughts & observations are welcome!)
- THE TOP 10 HAND SIGNS FOR RECOGNIZING DIABETES MELLITUS – TYPE 1 -
This TOP 10 is composed from a list of 34 hand signs for Diabetes Mellitus; the hand signs are ranked by Log Odds Ratio – which are calculated from the prevalence (%) among Diabetics & controls.
1 – Sclerodactyly: thick, waxy/hardening skin on back of the hand [Log Odds Ratio = +4.58]
2 – Fingerprints: radial loop on pinky [Log Odds Ratio = +3.16]
3 – Fingerprints: radial loop on ringfinger [Log Odds Ratio = +3.09]
4 – Neuropathy: loss of function: movement / sensation (Tinel’s sign, Phalen’s test, preacher sign / prayer sign, limited joint mobility) [Log Odds Ratio = +2.98]
5 – Pink patches on back of the hand / fingers (granuloma annulare lesions) [Log Odds Ratio = +2.73]
6 – Shiny patches, first: red-brown & painless, later: yellow & ulceration (necrobiosis lipoidica) [Log Odds Ratio = +2.71]
7 – Little skin pebbles on back of the hand / fingers (Huntley’s papules) [Log Odds Ratio = +2.64]
8 – Locked finger, a.k.a. ‘trigger finger’ (stenosing tenosynovitis) [Log Odds Ratio = +2.50]
9 – Palm ridges: high density on hypothenar [Log Odds Ratio = +2.50]
10 - Palm: radial arch on hypothenar [Log Odds Ratio = + 2.47]
‘Scerodactly’ (= localized thickening of the skin on the fingers: see the photo above & below) is listed as the most significant hand sign in diabetes mellitus type 1 (= insuline dependent diabetes) - according the log odds ratio statistics. And it is interesting to notice here that 4 of the 10 hand signs relate to the skin of the hand (see hand signs 1, 5, 6 and 7), including one that relates to the nails (hand sign 4).
NOTICE: In the field of medical dermatology the nails are perceived as being a part of the skin!
Additionally, studies have shown that skin abnormalties in diabetes become very signficant when these are also featured by motoric problems.
And it is fascinating to notice that these TOP 10 hand signs significant for Diabetes Mellitus – type 1 is a mix of hand features that relate to both the palm (5 hand signs) and fingers (7 hand signs) – hand sign five and seven relates to both the palm and the fingers.
And these 10 hand signs also relate to five of the seven perspectives described by Multi-Perspective Palm Reading, including: the skin quality of the hand (4 hand signs), fingerprints & palmar dermatoglyphics (4 hand signs), hand motorics (2 hand signs).
- THE TOP 10 HAND SIGNS FOR RECOGNIZING DIABETES MELLITUS - TYPE 2 -
This TOP 10 is composed from a list of 34 hand signs for Diabetes Mellitus – type 2, and the hand signs are ranked by Log Odds Ratio – which are calculated from the prevalence (%) among Diabetics & controls.
1 - Neuropathy: loss of function: movement / sensation (Tinel’s sign, Phalen’s test, preacher sign / prayer sign, limited joint mobility) [Log Odds Ratio = +3.36]
2 - Fingerprints: radial loop on pinky [Log Odds Ratio = +3.16]
3 - Fingerprints: radial loop on ringfinger [Log Odds Ratio = +3.09]
4 - Half white, half pink nails (Terry’s nails) [Log Odds Ratio = +3.09]
5 - Pink patches on back of the hand / fingers (granuloma annulare lesions) [Log Odds Ratio = +2.73]
6 - Shiny patches, first: red-brown & painless, later: yellow & ulceration (necrobiosis lipoidica) [Log Odds Ratio = +2.71]
7 - Little skin pebbles on back of the hand / fingers (Huntley’s papules) [Log Odds Ratio = +2.64]
8 - Locked finger, a.k.a. ‘trigger finger’ (stenosing tenosynovitis) [Log Odds Ratio = +2.50]
9 - Palm: radial arch on hypothenar [Log Odds Ratio = +2.28]
10 - Simian line [Log Odds Ratio = +2.24]
The so-called ‘prayer sign’ (or ‘preacher sign’: see the photos above & below) is listed as the most significant sign according the log odds ratio statistics. And it is interesting to notice here that 4 of the 10 hand signs relate to the skin of the hand (see hand signs 5, 6 and 7), including one that relates to the nails (hand sign 4) – NOTICE: In the field of medical dermatology the nails are perceived as being a part of the skin!
Additionally, studies have shown that skin abnormalties become very signficant when these are also featured by motoric problems.
And it is fascinating to notice that these TOP 10 hand signs significant for Diabetes Mellitus – type 2 [= non-insuline dependent diabetes] is a mix of hand features that relate to both the palm (8 hand signs) and fingers (4 hand signs) – hand sign five and seven relate to both the palm and the fingers.
And these 10 hand signs also relate to five of the seven perspectives described by Multi-Perspective Palm Reading, including: the skin quality of the hand (3 hand signs), fingerprints & palmar dermatoglyphics (3 hand signs), hand motorics (2 hand signs), primary lines (1 hand sign), fingernails (1 hand sign).
The 2D:4D digit ratio became especially popular due to the efforts of Prof. John T. Manning. Despite that the value & purpose of this hand marker has often been misunderstood, in the perspective of Multi-Perspective Palm Reading digit ratio can be used as a sensible & valuable tool!
The 2D:4D digit ratio became known as a prenatal hormonal marker, which provides a clue about the amount of testosterone and oestrogen to which each foetus has been exposed to in the womb.
This explains why the 2D: 4D digit ratio became a popular research tool among sciencitific researchers: because it provides an opportunity to study the role of prenatal hormones in the etiology of e.g. diseases & other human traits. Often the results of such studies have been ‘mis-qualified’ by reviewers & journalists as an effort to re-invent palm reading.
However, sometimes the results have been impressive… and surprizingly some researchers even have started speculating about ‘practical’ applications for the 2D:4D digit ratio.
DIGIT RATIO & PROSTATE CANCER:
An example of a study where the results have been very impressive concerns a 2010 British study, titled: ‘Hand Pattern indicates Prostate Cancer Risk‘.
The researchers described:
“A protective effect of a high 2D : 4D hand pattern on prostate cancer risk was observed. High 2D : 4D hand pattern may be the marker of low prenatal androgenic activity, suggesting the importance of hormone modulation in utero on prostate cancer risk. Hand pattern might represent a simple marker for prostate cancer risk, particularly in men age under 60 years.”
And they mentioned in the abstract of the published article:
“Compared with index finger shorter than ring finger (low 2D : 4D), men with index finger longer than ring finger (high 2D : 4D) showed a negative association, suggesting a protective effect with a 33% risk reduction.”
DIGIT RATIO & MULTI-PERSPECTIVE PALM READING:
Since the British study confirmed the results of a Korean study that was presented in 2010, the impressive (confirming) results raise the question: can these results can be used in Multi-Perspective Palm Reading?
Interestingly, in 2009 a study from Nigeria has suggested that fingerprints & palmar dermatoglyphics as well appear to display clues for prostate cancer. And in 2010 a more extended report has been published: ‘The Study of Palmar Dermatoglyphics and Cancer‘ (2010).
And because many other hand markers have been identified as significant in the perspective of the hand in cancer (including e.g.: fingernails, skin characteristics), it appears just a matter of time before scientific researchers will start studying the 2D:4D digit ratio combined with other prenatal body markers or minor physical anomalies related to the hand.
In an earlier post is described that schizophrenia became known for a high occurence of minor physical anomalies (MPA’s). Another example of a developmental abnormality that has been studied as a hand marker for schizophrenia, but which lies outside the scope of the traditional MPA construct, is the occurence of visibility of the blood vessels in the proximal nailfold – a.k.a. ‘nailfold plexus visibility’ (NPV – which requires the use of a microscope for proper assessment). A high level of nailfold plexus visibility is rare in the general population (occurring in 3-7% of healthy adults) while the rate of high NPV ranges from 20-70% in populations with schizophrenia (Curtis et al., 1999).
Interestingly, over the years studies have suggested this hand characteristic is specificly related to the so-called ‘negative symptoms’ in schizophrenia (which are associated with deficits of normal emotional responses or of other thought processes). And EEG studies have revealed that this nail fold blood vessel condition may mark a process associated with abnormal brain development leading to schizophrenia – including: an inverse relationship between plexus visibility and lateral ventricle size in the brain. The PVS is reliably determined and stable over time. Interrater reliabilities for PVS reportedly range from .83 to .99 (Buchanan and Jones 1969; Maricq 1966).
Taken together, researchers have concluded that findings on MPAs indicate that these minor anomalies appear to be part of some schizophrenia syndromes, representing a stable systemic or physical set of manifestations of the underlying neurodevelopmental processes that lead to the illness. This might explain why in the DSM-V the term ‘schizophrenia’ may be get replaced by the name ‘psychosis risk syndrome‘.
BLOOD SUPPLY IN THE SKIN:
The skin has a profuse blood supply, which is important in temperature regulation. The subcutaneous arteries form a network in the subcutaneous tissue, and from this is derived a subpapillary plexus in the dermis. Capillary loops in the dermal papillae arise from the subpapillary plexus, and from these loops the avascular epidermis is bathed in tissue fluid. A subpapillary plexus of venules gives the skin its pink color: the vessels become dilated when the skin is heated, and thereby make it look red.
NAILFOLD PLEXUS VISIBILITY & PSYCHOPATHOLOGY:
Just like is seen in the perspective of minor physical anomalies, nailfold plexia visibility is much more common in schizophrenia than in any other form of psychopathology. Studies have revealed that nailfold plexia visibility in schizophrenia is (much) more common than in other psychotic- & mood disorders – but these other disorders also show higher occurence than seen in the general population.
Studies have also shown that that patients with schizophrenia with a highly visible plexus have greater oculomotor dysfunction, negative symptoms, symptom severity, chronic course, and neuropsychological dysfunction. Furthermore, nailfold plexus visibility appears to be at least moderately heritable.
NAILFOLD PLEXUS & OTHER DISORDERS:
Other studies have revealed that nail fold plexus visibility has also been linked with hand markers in rheumatoid arthritis & hand markers in psoriasis. The pronounced subpapillary plexus visibility, greater number of vessels and their elongation are indicative of rheumatoid arthritis, while shorter, fewer capillaries and especially characteristic psoriatic capillaries, when present, suggest psoriatic arthritis.
Changes of nailfold capillary patterns have been described in certain patients with systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, mixed connective tissue disease, and Raynaud’s syndrome.
NOTICE: The nail tutor demonstrates how other nail fold characteristics can be associated with specific medical problems. More details about how to recognize various stages/variants of proximal nailfold blood vessels visibility in a palm reading, are presented in the picture below.
A phantom picture for the hand in schizophrenia is available here:
Nailfold plexus changes are characterized by loss of (drop-out) nailfold capillary loops that surround the remaining, enlarged dilated capillaries. Upper left, A normal nailfold capillary pattern shows the uniform morphology and homogeneous disitribution of the small capillary loops just below the cuticle. Upper right, Capillaroscopy in a patient with systemic sclerosis illustrates dilatation of isolated capillary loops, with loss of surrounding loop structures. Lower right, The abnormal pattern is from a patient with childhood dermatomyositis. Dilated capillary loops are present, as well as areas of arborized clusters of capillary loops. Lower left, Distortion of the normal capillary loop architecture is seen in a patient with adult dermatomyositis. Note the loss of normal homogeneous distribution of the capillaries and the alterations in the morphology of the vessels, including the dilated and enlarged “giant” capillary loops.
After describing in the last post a few hand conditions (eczema & granuloma anulare) that may look scary but are relatively harmless, in this new post we focuss on a fex examples of hand skin conditions that typically indicate serious health problems.
The following 3 hand conditions were e.g. presented in a Medscape slideshow, and they can usually be described as ‘worrisome’:
Lichen Planus (see photo above) manifest typically as a rash made up of reddish-purple, flat-topped bumps that may itch like crazy. It usually appears on the wrists (or on the ankles of the feet, but may be on the lower back, neck, legs, and genitals). The cause of Lichen Planus isn’t known — but if you have it, you’ll need to get liver tests. It could be a sign of hepatitis C.
Tripe Palms (see photo above) describes a skin condition in which the skin of the palm becomes thick and velvety-white with pronounced folds in the lines of the hand. The skin resembles boiled tripe. It’s a sign of cancer. If only the palms are involved, it’s most likely lung cancer. If tripe palms is accompanied by acanthosis nigricans, it’s most likely gastric cancer.
NEPHROGENIC SYSTEMIC FIBROSIS / WOODEN HANDS:
Nephrogenic System Fibrosis (see photo above) was first described in 1997. Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis starts ussually as a brown discoloration and indentation of the lower arms and legs. Very soon, the hands and feet become brown and like wood. NOTICE: Sometimes there’s also a small yellow spot in the eye. Researchers only recently found that the gadolinium contrast agent used during MRI exams triggers this condition in some patients with kidney failure.
Read more about the role of skin quality conditions in Multiple-Perspective Palm Reading:
Many hand skin conditions do not indicate that anything else is wrong with you. Hand eczema can happen to anyone typically manifests as dry hands. Dry hands that persist despite the use of lotions and creams may be a sign of a condition called hand eczema or dermatitis. However, hand eczema may sometimes be difficult or impossible to differentiate from more worrisome hand conditions, such as: atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, and psoriasis, which also commonly involve the hands. And even a biopsy for all these conditions may not result in a definitive diagnosis.
Below follows an overview of ‘scary’ hand conditions that are usually harmless.
Hand eczema is a term used for different types of hand skin inflammation (dermatitis). The symptoms of eczema typically include itchy, reddened, dry skin. Many things can cause this type of skin irritation such as dryness, soaps and detergents, cleaning products, rubber gloves and even cosmetic lotions and creams. Since the skin is itchy, prolonged scratching often occurs which in turn leads to reddened, irritated, scaling skin or to a leathery thickening of the skin (sometimes called lichenification). Cracking and weeping of the skin may also occur and open sores may become infected. And there are basically two types of dermatitis: ‘contact dermatitis’ and ‘atopic dermatitis’. The causes of eczema have not been fully determined, but allergies, stress, irritants, and genetic factors are all associated as possible causes for the development of this hand condition (see the photo below).
Granuloma annulare is a chronic skin disease consisting of a rash with reddish bumps arranged in a circle or ring. Granuloma annulare is different from warts. A cryotherapy treatment typically will not produce permanent results. And this skin condition most often affects children, young and older adults and it is also slightly more common in females. This hand skin condition is usually seen in otherwise healthy people – though sometime it is associated with diabetes, thyroid diseases, or auto-immune diseases.
But there are other hand skin conditions that can be relatively harmless, such as: red skin, blisters, microinfarcts, little spots & vasculitis.
More info about these conditions & their role in ‘Multi-Perspective Palm Reading’ is available here:
Your skin can be a window to your underlying health, says Joseph Jorizzo, MD, one of the experts who wrote the book ‘Dermatological Signs of Internal Disease‘. Many underlying health conditions — some very serious — first appear as skin problems.
In an earlier post you were able to read how your fingernails can be used as a barometer for your (past) health – during the past sixe months. As a matter of fact, medical science classifies the fingernails as a part of your outer skin systems which surrounds your body. So it should not be surprizing that your skin can provide clues about your health as well.
But first of all: not all skin conditions are scary! Many skin conditions do not indicate that anything else is wrong with you. For example, granuloma annulare is raised, reddish or flesh-colored bumps forming ring patterns on the hands and feet. They usually go away within two years, and don’t mean anything is wrong with you.
The difference betwen ’harmless’ hand skin conditions & ‘worrisome’ hand skin conditions will be discussed in the next series of posts.
Read more about the role of skin conditions in Multiple-Perspective Palm Reading: