Palm Reading Perspectives

Multi-Perspective Palm Reading: About Hands & how to make a Hand-Diagnosis

Archive for June 2011

World Population Study shows: Fingerprint in Pointer Finger is most unique!

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Every person has unique fingerprint. In the forensic sciences the process of comparing two fingerprints – known as ‘dactyloscopy‘ – is focussed on identifying tiny characteristics in the friction ridge skin. However, fingerprint pattern types are not unique at all: they e.g. fingerprint pattern types highly depend on sexe & race. An international study points out that the fingerprint type in the pointer finger is most unique!

In order to study the interactive effects of sexe & race in fingerprints (dermatoglyphics), a study has been conducted on fingerprint samples in 5 world populations (2.785 people) – including: Americans (A), British (B), Chinese (C), Iranians (I), and Nigerians (N). 

Only the so-called Vucetich fingerprint types were considered in this study, which is founded on the number of triradii + their location:

– whorls are characterised by the presence of 2 triradii;
– ulnar loops are characterised by the presence of 1 triradius positioned at the thumb-side;
– radial loops are characterised by the presence of 1 triradius positioned at the pinky-side;
– arches are characterised by the absense of a triradius.

The results of the study are shown in the picture below:


_


FINGERPRINTS & SEXE:

International studies in the past have shown that fingerprint types in females almost universally differ from males in having more arches. And usually females also differ in bearing fewer whorls, and typically they also tend to have slightly less radial loops.

The new study shows that in all 5 populations arches are much more common in females: +44.9% (compared to males); and whorls are indeed less common in females: – 10.5% (compared to males). And as expected the sexe-effects in radial loops (-0.6%) and ulnar loops is much smaller (+2.3%).

Interestingly, the most typical sexe-effect for arches is by far less prominent in the index finger: +11.5% (compared to the other fingers: thumb: +57.6%, middle finger: +69.4%, ring finger: +58.4%, pinky finger: +123.1%). This indicates that the fingerprint type in the index finger is least ruled by sexe.


FINGERPRINTS & RACE:

The Fingerprints World Map has shown that studies in the past have shown that the occurence of fingerprint types varies significantly in the populations around the world: e.g. Asians are known for a higher occurence of whorls, and Africans for a higher occurence of arches.

The new study confirms these earlier findings:

– Whorls are by far most common in Chinese males (48.2%) and females (45.4%);
– Arches are by far most common in Nigerian females (13.7%) and males (9.1%).

Interestingly again, the details show that the most typical racial-effects are least prominent in the index finger – in the picture this is e.g. also indicated by the relatively small variance for the ulnar loops among the races!


POINTER FINGER  HAS THE HIGHEST VARIABILITY:

Summarizing, the study has shown that sexe & race have relatively small effects on the fingerprint type of the pointer finger.

And this might actually makes sense, because the pointer finger [index finger] is known for displaying the highest level of variability – e.g. arches & radial loops are known for manifesting by far most often on the index finger (and the same is true for less common fingerprint types such as: the tented arches & accidentals).

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Written by martijnvanmensvoort

June 16, 2011 at 4:20 pm

FINGERTIP BIOMETRY – Fingertips Signal Clues for Schizophrenia!

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Many studies have revealed that syndromes & diseases become manifest in hand functions & many aspects in the morphology of the hands. Interestingly, a closer look a the studies performed so far indicates that for the hand in schizophrenia the significance of the fingertips is more important than in other disorders!

A person diagnosed with schizophrenia may experience hallucinations (most reported are hearing voices), delusions (often bizarre or persecutory in nature), and disorganized thinking and speech. But there are no symptoms which are seen in all schizophrenic patients.

 In order to understand the connection between hands and schizophrenia thorougly, it is important to be aware of the essential difference between the so-calledpositive symptoms‘ and ‘negative symptoms. Because some of the fingertip characteristics in schizophrenia are associated with only category of the symptoms! (More details will be revealed later)

NOTICE:  The ‘positive symptoms’ in schizoprenia are those symptoms that most individuals do not normally experience but are present in people with schizophrenia (such as: hallucinations & disordered speech). And the ‘negative symptoms‘ are deficits of normal emotional responses or of other thought processes, and respond less well to medication (such as: blunted affect & poverty of speech).


FIVE FINGERTIP DIMENSIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA!

A closer study of the reports published so far, unveals that in schizophrenia at least 5 dimensions of the fingertips  provide significant clues, including:

FINGERTIP DIMENSION 1 – Fingerprints:

– 1a: extralimital triradii (prevalence: 6.6% in schizophrenics vs. 1.5% in controls);
– 1b: fingerprint type asymmetry on 3 or more fingers.

FINGERTIP DIMENSION 2 – Fingernails:

– small & underdeveloped (prevalence: 18.8% in schizophrenics vs. 2.0% in controls).

FINGERTIP DIMENSION 3 – Shape:

– 3a: short length is typical (prevalence: unknown);
– 3b: spatulate is typical (prevalence: 42.4% in schizophrenics vs 21.7% in controls).

FINGERTIP DIMENSION 4 – Skin:

– blood vessels in proximal nail fold are visible (prevalence: 20-70% in schizophrenics vs. 3-7% in controls);

FINGERTIP DIMENSION 5 – Creases:

– excessive (prevalence: unknown);

(The sources for the percentages are listed in the article: How to make a Palm Reading Assessment
for SCHIZOPHRENIA?
)


 FINGERTIPS & THE BRAIN:

Interestingly, there appears to be a connection as well regarding how schizophrenia is linked with the brain! Because after Penfield described in his cortical homunculus (see the picture on the right) in the 1940’s how the primary somatosensory cortex is linked with e.g. the fingertips, brain studies have later revealed that schizophrenia is often featured with abnormalities in the same region of the brain (+ other near located parts of the brain, including: the thalamus & frontal lobe). 


FINGERTIP DIMENSIONS IN OTHER DISORDERS?:

The following summary shows that only three out of the five fingertip dimensions that provide significant clues for schizophrenia, also display significant clues in 6 other diseases & syndromes that are well known for displaying significant hand markers. Only rheumatoid arthritis provides clues in these three fingertip dimensions!
 

FINGERTIP DIMENSION 1 – Fingerprints:

Significant for the hand in Down syndrome, the hand in diabetes mellitus, the hand in fragile-X syndrome, and the hand in rheumatoid arthritis.

FINGERTIP DIMENSION 2 – Fingernails:

Significiant for the hand in Down syndrome, the hand in diabetes mellitus, the hand in Marfan syndrome, the hand in psoriasis, and the hand in rheumatoid arthritis.

FINGERTIP DIMENSION 3 – Shape:

Significant for the hand in Marfan syndrome, the hand in psoriasis, and the hand in rheumatoid arthritis.

FINGERTIP DIMENSION 4 – Skin:

No significant markers for any of the six studied diseases & syndromes.

FINGERTIP DIMENSION 5 – Creases:

No significant markers for any of the six studied diseases & syndromes.

These materials indicate that a significant part of the correlations between the hands & schizophrenia is found at the fingertips. To be continued!

Penrose's brain homunculus describes how the fingertips relate to the primary somatosensory cortex & the primary somatomotoric cortex.

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

June 12, 2011 at 10:22 pm

Nailfold Blood Vessels reveal a Biological Marker for Schizophrenia!

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Visibility of the nailfold blood vessels plexus has been known for a long time as a biological marker in schizophrenia.

In an earlier post is described that schizophrenia became known for a high occurence of minor physical anomalies (MPA’s). Another example of a developmental abnormality that has been studied as a hand marker for schizophrenia, but which lies outside the scope of the traditional MPA construct, is the occurence of visibility of the blood vessels in the proximal nailfold – a.k.a. ‘nailfold plexus visibility’ (NPV – which requires the use of a microscope for proper assessment). A high level of nailfold plexus visibility is rare in the general population (occurring in 3-7% of healthy adults) while the rate of high NPV ranges from 20-70% in populations with schizophrenia (Curtis et al., 1999).

Interestingly, over the years studies have suggested this hand characteristic is specificly related to the so-called ‘negative symptoms’ in schizophrenia (which are associated with deficits of normal emotional responses or of other thought processes). And EEG studies have revealed that this nail fold blood vessel condition may mark a process associated with abnormal brain development leading to schizophrenia – including: an inverse relationship between plexus visibility and lateral ventricle size in the brain. The PVS is reliably determined and stable over time. Interrater reliabilities for PVS reportedly range from .83 to .99 (Buchanan and Jones 1969; Maricq 1966).

Taken together, researchers have concluded that findings on MPAs indicate that these minor anomalies appear to be part of some schizophrenia syndromes, representing a stable systemic or physical set of manifestations of the underlying neurodevelopmental processes that lead to the illness. This might explain why in the DSM-V the term ‘schizophrenia’ may be get replaced by the name ‘psychosis risk syndrome‘.


BLOOD SUPPLY IN THE SKIN:

 The skin has a profuse blood supply, which is important in temperature regulation. The subcutaneous arteries form a network in the subcutaneous tissue, and from this is derived a subpapillary plexus in the dermis. Capillary loops in the dermal papillae arise from the subpapillary plexus, and from these loops the avascular epidermis is bathed in tissue fluid. A subpapillary plexus of venules gives the skin its pink color: the vessels become dilated when the skin is heated, and thereby make it look red.


NAILFOLD PLEXUS VISIBILITY & PSYCHOPATHOLOGY:

Just like is seen in the perspective of minor physical anomalies, nailfold plexia visibility is much more common in schizophrenia than in any other form of psychopathology. Studies have revealed that nailfold plexia visibility in schizophrenia is (much) more common than in other psychotic- & mood disorders – but these other disorders also show higher occurence than seen in the general population.

Studies have also shown that that patients with schizophrenia with a highly visible plexus have greater oculomotor dysfunction, negative symptoms, symptom severity, chronic course, and neuropsychological dysfunction. Furthermore, nailfold plexus visibility appears to be at least moderately heritable.


NAILFOLD PLEXUS & OTHER DISORDERS:

Other studies have revealed that nail fold plexus visibility has also been linked with hand markers in rheumatoid arthritis & hand markers in psoriasis. The pronounced subpapillary plexus visibility, greater number of vessels and their elongation are indicative of rheumatoid arthritis, while shorter, fewer capillaries and especially characteristic psoriatic capillaries, when present, suggest psoriatic arthritis.

Changes of nailfold capillary patterns have been described in certain patients with systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, mixed connective tissue disease, and Raynaud’s syndrome.

NOTICE: The nail tutor demonstrates how other nail fold characteristics can be associated with specific medical problems. More details about how to recognize various stages/variants of proximal nailfold blood vessels visibility in a palm reading, are presented in the picture below.


A phantom picture for the hand in schizophrenia is available here:

http://www.multiperspectivepalmreading.com/hands-schizophrenia-palm-reading.htm

Nailfold plexus examples.

Nailfold plexus changes are characterized by loss of (drop-out) nailfold capillary loops that surround the remaining, enlarged dilated capillaries. Upper left, A normal nailfold capillary pattern shows the uniform morphology and homogeneous disitribution of the small capillary loops just below the cuticle. Upper right, Capillaroscopy in a patient with systemic sclerosis illustrates dilatation of isolated capillary loops, with loss of surrounding loop structures. Lower right, The abnormal pattern is from a patient with childhood dermatomyositis. Dilated capillary loops are present, as well as areas of arborized clusters of capillary loops. Lower left, Distortion of the normal capillary loop architecture is seen in a patient with adult dermatomyositis. Note the loss of normal homogeneous distribution of the capillaries and the alterations in the morphology of the vessels, including the dilated and enlarged “giant” capillary loops.

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

June 11, 2011 at 2:13 am

Learn how Your Hands may guide Your Brains to solve a Problem!

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CHICAGO, JUNE 2011 – New psychology research suggests that hand gestures unconsciously influence people’s problem solving strategy! Two experiments have shown that when people are confronted with a problem to solve, they don’t just use their brains but the rest of their bodies, too. “Being able to use your body in problem solving alters the way you solve the problems,” says University of Wisconsin psychology professor Martha Alibali. “Body movements are one of the resources we bring to cognitive processes.”

These conclusions, of a new study by Alibali and colleagues—Robert C. Spencer, also at the University of Wisconsin, and Lucy Knox and Sotaro Kita of the University of Birmingham—are augmented by another, counter-intuitive one – even when we are solving problems that have to do with motion and space, the inability to use the body may force us to come up with other strategies, and these may be more efficient.

The findings will be published in an upcoming issue of Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.


TWO EXPERIMENTS:

The study involved two experiments. The first recruited 86 American undergraduates, half of whom were prevented from moving their hands using Velcro gloves that attached to a board. The others were prevented from moving their feet, using Velcro straps attached to another board. The latter thus experienced the strangeness of being restricted, but also had their hands free.  From the other side of an opaque screen, the experimenter asked questions about gears in relation to each other—e.g., “If five gears are arranged in a line, and you move the first gear clockwise, what will the final gear do?” The participants solved the problems aloud and were videotaped.

The videotapes were then analyzed for the number of hand gestures the participants used (hand rotations or “ticking” movements, indicating counting); verbal explanations indicating the subject was visualizing those physical movements; or the use of more abstract mathematical rules, without reference to perceptual-motor processes.

Psychologist dr. Martha Alibali.

The results: The people who were allowed to gesture usually did so—and they also commonly used perceptual-motor strategies in solving the puzzles. The people whose hands were restrained, as well as those who chose not to gesture (even when allowed), used abstract, mathematical strategies much more often.

The findings evince deeper questions about the relationship of mind and body and their relationship to space, says Alibali. “As human thinkers, we use visual-spatial metaphors all the time to solve problems and conceptualize things—even in domains that don’t seem physical on their face. Adding is ‘up,’ subtracting is ‘down.’ A good mood is ‘high,’ a bad one is ‘low.’ This is the metaphoric structuring of our conceptual landscape.”

Alibali, who is also an educational psychologist, asks: “How we can harness the power of action and perception in learning?” Or, conversely: What about the cognitive strategies of people who cannot use their bodies? “They may focus on different aspects of problems,” she says. And, it turns out, they may be onto something the rest of us could learn from.

Obviously, by controling- or using your hands… you can stimulate your brains to find another strategy (in respective: an abstract- or verbal explanation) to solve a problem


More studies related to the connection between hand gestures & palm reading:

http://www.handresearch.com/news/hand-gestures.htm

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

June 10, 2011 at 4:40 am

The Professor in Psychology who Started his Career as a Palm Reader!

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Ray Hyman, Prof. in Psychology.

‘No-no!’ This is not the story of the  British ‘finger-professor’ Professor John T. Manning – who became famous for his finger length ratio studies.

This is the story of another psychologist: Professor Ray Hyman! Who started his career in psychology at Boston University (USA) with a rather remarkable experience in the field of palm reading. In a 2007 interview he told the story of how he got interested in the ‘psychology of self-deception’. As a college student, he tried to earn some money as a palm reader by read several books on the art of ‘palmistry’. However… he didn’t believe any of it!

However, young Hyman got so much positive feedback from his customers, however, that he started to think that maybe he did have psychic powers. The self-deception didn’t last long.

In a 2007 interview with Michael Shermer (the Founding Publisher of Skeptic magazine) prof. Ray Hyman told his story: 

“Going back in time, I did palm readings for years, and for awhile I had become a gung ho believer. I started as a skeptic but as I added things to my repertoire I became a believer. I couldn’t travel as a young magician so I was forced to play at the same places and had to come up with new things for them. This is when I took up palm reading. I watched people in the carnies and got to know them and picked up a lot of things from them. I didn’t want to do sword swallowing or anything like that, but with palm reading you could tell people all sorts of detailed things about them, like what point they had a heart attack, what age they were when they had a problem with their head, and so on. By high school, even though I was a skeptic about most things, I believed in palm reading because it seemed plausible to me since the palm is physically connected with the body.”

 “…The late Stanley Jaks convinced me to do a palm reading on someone and tell them the exact opposite of what I would normally say. So I did this. If I thought I saw in this woman’s palm that she had heart trouble at age 5, for example. I said, “well, you have a very strong heart,” that sort of thing. In this particular case, though, it was really spooky, because she just sat there poker faced. Usually I get a lot of feedback from the subject. In fact, I depend on the feedback, and this woman was giving me nothing. It was weird. I thought I bombed. But it turns out the reason she was so quiet was because she was stunned. She told me it was the most impressive reading she had ever had. So I did this with a couple more clients, and I suddenly realized that whatever was going on had nothing to do with what I said but with the presentation itself. This was one of the reasons I went into psychology—I wanted to find out how it was that people, including myself, could be so easily deceived. In fact, this is one of the reasons why I am not as confrontational as James Randi, because I actually see that “there but for the grace of God go I.”

This is how Hyman discovered that it didn’t really matter what he told the people who’s hand he read. Because in his experience he found that his clients would figure out a way to make him right.

Hyman later became an expert in understanding ‘cold reading’ and ‘subjective validation’, the words that are used today to describe the process of making claims with no basis in fact or palm reading study and having them validated as true by others.

(Unfortunately… Hyman didn’t mentioned the titles of the palmistry books that he had used as a student)


You can read here a bit more about the ‘image’ of hand reading:

http://www.handresearch.com/hand/Evolutie/imagoEngels.htm

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

June 8, 2011 at 3:18 am

The oldest ‘Portrait’ of Man is a 32.000 Years old Hand Print!

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Hand prints in on the walls of Chauvet Cave, southern France (width of each hand print is 8cm).

 The earliest known ‘portrait of man’ was found in Chauvet Cave (south-east of France) – which was discovered 1994. Containing the earliest known cave paintings, the cave art has been attributed to Aurignacian Man (c.35,000 BC) through the use of carbon dating. Interestingly, among the many cave paintings there are quite a lot of hand prints; one of those hand prints became known as ‘the oldest portrait of man‘ – made c.32.000 BC!

The oldest portrait of man - a 32.000 year old hand print found in Chauvet Cave, France.

Whereas some scholars consider these cave handprints to be early attempts at human artistic self-expression, others believe they must have magical significance. And because the hand prints occur in the innermost parts of caves, on the walls of which primitive men painted  pictures of horses, cattle, bears, mammoths, and other animals that roamed Europe in their epoch, it has been suggested that these locations must have been  places of prayer and magical ceremonies.

Since these were the main tools primitive people had to capture the animals they relied on for sustenance, the hands must have seemed not only mystical, but also symbolic of the entire human being. As Jack Mauduy says, if the hand print is taken to be the hand itself and, by an extension, the entire body, the spirit-strength within the hand can be thought to represent all of the energy stored in the entire being.

And today, the capturing of the hand prints of celebrities can in a way be perceived as a likewise ritual as the ancient art from the Chauvet cave in France. Nelson Mandela’s hand print art collection (see the picture below) is an example of this. 

Nelson Mandela's hand print art.

HAND PRINTS & RELIGIOUS CUSTOMS:

Religious customs associated with the hands still persist among premitive peoples today. For example, the African Bushmen cut of a finger to symbolize suffering at the loss of a family member or loved one. Other peoples cut of a finger to use a talisman against danger of plague. Plainsmen of New Guinea make hand prints of walls just as primitive man did twenty thousands years ago and cut of fingers to give to the gods in gratitude for good harvest. Interestingly, it seems that, as time passed, primitive people stopped performing bodily mutilation of this kind and resorted to finding mystical qualities in hand print, which came to replace severed digits and hands in their religious ceremonies.

Hand print of a Japanese Sumo wrestler.

HAND PRINTS AROUND THE WORLD:

 The same psychology maybe traceable in old Japanese customs of displaying on walls hand prints of Sumo wrestlers as charms and good-luck signs.

But there many likewise habits are found all over the world. Muslims, for example, use such a charm that looks like a hand with the five fingers extrended. And in some parts of Arabia, people make good-luck signs over the entrances to their houses by dipping their hands in sheep’s blood and pressing them against the wall.

In brief, since the dawn of civilization, human beings, not only in Europe, but also in Asia and Africa, have been fascinated by the mystical nature of the hands.

Hand print of 'James Bond 007' - Sir Sean Connery, Leicester - UK.

THE EARLIEST SIGNS OF PALM READING:

The ancient Indians  were the first to conceive the idea of telling a man’s ‘fate’ from his hands (3000 BC), and palm reading in New Delhi is still a classic source of entertainment for Western tourists. 

Then the ancient Chinese became known for being the first who associated man’s health with his hands (2500 BC), a palm reading in Hong Kong will nearly always include a reading of your ‘health’.

And the Greeks were probably the first who associated man’s psychology with his hands (350 BC). And maybe therefore it is not really surprizing that a palm reading in London will often include a reading of your ‘personality’!

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

June 6, 2011 at 9:25 pm

Pale Fingernails, Lines & Palms may provide Clues for Lack of Red Blood Cells!

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Pale fingernails (nail bed pallor).

In an earlier post the medical significance of nail changes was described. Especially nail color is known for displaying significant features. One of those features is the presence of ‘pale nails’ (a.k.a. nailbed pallor), which can indicate anemia, or the decrease in the number of red blood cells. But palmar skin– & palmar line color may signal the same clue!

Red blood cells take care of carying oxygen to the body’s organs & tissues via the blood stream in the circulary system. Therefore it is important that the body has enough red blood cells. The amount of red blood cells correlates with the amount of hemoglobine in the blood stream.

Normal palmar crease color.


BODY CHARACTERISTICS IN ANEMIA:

Studies have indicated that various body characteristics can provide significant clues that relate to the presence of anemia, including: the tongue, inner eyelid & the hands!

Pale palms (palmar pallor).


HAND CHARACTERISTICS & ANEMIA:

Last year (2010) a study from India in 390 anemia patients revealed that a ‘pale tongue’ (tongue pallor) is the most reliable predictor in patients with very low hemaglobine levels. However, in patients with only slightly lower hemaglobine levels ‘pale fingernails’ and ‘pale palms’ revealed to provide more reliable clues than the tongue!


PALE HAND LINES & ANEMIA:

Interestingly, a 2000 study has revealed that ‘pale hand lines’ (palmar crease pallor) was only seen in 4 out of 61 anemia patients, and not seen at all in any of the 42 controls!

Obviously, pallor in adults is a sign for anemia. Obviously, pallor in a clinical sign of anaemia. And the severity correlates with the amount of pinkness of palm. It is graded as mild, moderate and severe.But how about the hands of children?

PALE HANDS IN CHILDREN & ANEMIA:

In the hands of children younger than 2 years palmar pallor, has a sensitivity of 58%, and the highest sensitivity to detect moderate anemia as compared to other anatomic sites. If the palmar creases are pale it indicates severe pallor – a reliable indicator for medical palm reading. The common causes of severe pallor are haemorrhage, haemolysis, aplastic anaemia and shock.

Additionally the Nail Tutor reports that a ‘missing lunula’ is another fingernail characteristic which signals anemia:
http://www.handresearch.com/finger-nails/nail-tutor-lunula-missing-absent.htm

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

June 5, 2011 at 11:05 pm

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