Palm Reading Perspectives

Multi-Perspective Palm Reading: About Hands & how to make a Hand-Diagnosis

Archive for the ‘fingernails’ Category

Hand Assessment Chart: A palm reading profile via 36 hand features!

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Aristole described: ‘the hand is the organ of the organs’. Later, in medical science the hand became recognized to represent the most differentiated external part of the body. This implicates that an assessment of the hand is a rather complex (arbitrary) task. In order to simplify the task an ‘assessment chart’ was developed based on the principles described by Multi-Perspective Palm Reading.

The ‘assessment chart’ (see above) presents an overview of 36 key-features of the hand, the significance of all individual hand markers involved has been confirmed in scientific studies – though the significance of course varies and depends on the theme for which a hand feature is used to make a (hand) assessment.

The chart is divided in 8 sections, one for each of the 7 hand dimensions (including: dermatoglyphics, finger length, lines, motorics, nails, shape & skin) – NOTICE: the dimension ‘dermatoglyphics’ is divided in a sub-section describing the fingerprints + a sub-section describing palmar dermatoglyphics.

Learn more about the background, purpose & principles of Multi-Perspective Palm Reading!

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

February 9, 2013 at 1:02 am

TOP 10 Hand Signs indicative for Diabetes Mellitus – type 2!

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The ‘prayer sign’ is a very significant hand sign for the hand in Diabetes Mellitus – type 2.



This TOP 10 is composed from a list of 34 hand signs for Diabetes Mellitus – type 2, and the hand signs are ranked by Log Odds Ratio – which are calculated from the prevalence (%) among Diabetics & controls.

1 – Neuropathy: loss of function: movement / sensation (Tinel’s sign, Phalen’s test, preacher sign / prayer sign, limited joint mobility) [Log Odds Ratio = +3.36]
2 – Fingerprints: radial loop on pinky [Log Odds Ratio = +3.16]
3 – Fingerprints: radial loop on ringfinger [Log Odds Ratio = +3.09]
4 – Half white, half pink nails (Terry’s nails) [Log Odds Ratio = +3.09]
5 – Pink patches on back of the hand / fingers (granuloma annulare lesions)  [Log Odds Ratio = +2.73]
6 – Shiny patches, first: red-brown & painless, later: yellow & ulceration (necrobiosis lipoidica) [Log Odds Ratio = +2.71]
7 – Little skin pebbles on back of the hand / fingers (Huntley’s papules) [Log Odds Ratio = +2.64]
8 – Locked finger, a.k.a. ‘trigger finger’ (stenosing tenosynovitis) [Log Odds Ratio = +2.50]
9 – Palm: radial arch on hypothenar [Log Odds Ratio = +2.28]
10 – Simian line [Log Odds Ratio = +2.24]

The so-called ‘prayer sign’ (or ‘preacher sign’: see the photos above & below) is listed as the most significant sign according the log odds ratio statistics. And it is interesting to notice here that 4 of the 10 hand signs relate to the skin of the hand (see hand signs 5, 6 and 7), including one that relates to the nails (hand sign 4) – NOTICE: In the field of medical dermatology the nails are perceived as being a part of the skin! 

Additionally, studies have shown that skin abnormalties become very signficant when these are also featured by motoric problems.

And it is fascinating to notice that these TOP 10 hand signs significant for Diabetes Mellitus – type 2 [= non-insuline dependent diabetes] is a mix of hand features that relate to both the palm (8 hand signs) and fingers (4 hand signs) – hand sign five and seven relate to both the palm and the fingers.

And these 10 hand signs also relate to five of the seven perspectives described by Multi-Perspective Palm Reading, including: the skin quality of the hand (3 hand signs), fingerprints & palmar dermatoglyphics (3 hand signs), hand motorics (2 hand signs), primary lines (1 hand sign), fingernails (1 hand sign).

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

August 17, 2011 at 8:15 pm

TOP 10 Hand Signs indicative for Schizophrenia!

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A phantom picture for the hand in schizophrenia.



This TOP 10 is composed from a list of 37 hand signs for Schizophrenia, and the hand signs are ranked by Log Odds Ratio – which are calculated from the prevalence (%) among Schizophrenics & controls.

1 – Excessive accessory creases [Log Odds Ratio = +3.40]
2 – Pinky: imobility (ankylosis)  [Log Odds Ratio = +3.02]
3 – Lack of expression / rigid expression [Log Odds Ratio = +2.77]
4 – Nail fold plexus visibility [Log Odds Ratio = +2.74]
5 – Sydney line [Log Odds Ratio = +2.45]
6 – Nails: small & underdeveloped (rudimentary) [Log Odds Ratio = +2.43]
7 – Chaotic arrangement of secundary creases [Log Odds Ratio = +2.32]
8 – Simian crease [Log Odds Ratio = +2.27]
9 – Atypical handedness [Log Odds Ratio = +1.80]
10 – Nails: excessively curved outwards (hyperconcex nails) [Log Odds Ratio = +1.74]

It is interesting to notice here that 4 of the 10 hand signs relate to the fingertips (see hand signs 1, 4, 6 and 10). And additionally 4 of the 10 hand signs relate to the hand lines.

And it is fascinating to notice that these TOP 10 hand signs significant for Schizophrenia is a mix of hand features that relate to both the palm (5 hand signs) and fingers (6 hand signs) – hand sign one relates to both the palm and the fingers.

And these 10 hand signs also relate to five of the seven perspectives described by Multi-Perspective Palm Reading, including: the primary, secundary- & accessory lines (4 hand signs), fingernails & nailfold (3 hand sign), hand motorics (2 hand sign), and morphology (1 hand sign).

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

July 29, 2011 at 11:10 pm

2D:4D Digit Ratio – About Finger Length Ratios & Multi-Perspective Palm Reading!

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 The 2D:4D digit ratio became especially popular due to the efforts of Prof. John T. Manning. Despite that the value  & purpose of this hand marker has often been misunderstood, in the perspective of Multi-Perspective Palm Reading digit ratio can be used as a sensible & valuable tool!

The 2D:4D digit ratio became known as a prenatal hormonal marker, which provides a clue about the amount of testosterone and oestrogen to which each foetus has been exposed to in the womb.

This explains why the 2D: 4D digit ratio became a popular research tool among sciencitific researchers: because it provides an opportunity to study the role of prenatal hormones in the etiology of e.g. diseases & other human traits. Often the results of such studies have been ‘mis-qualified’ by reviewers & journalists as an effort to re-invent palm reading.

However,  sometimes the results have been impressive… and surprizingly some researchers even have started speculating about ‘practical’ applications for the 2D:4D digit ratio.


 An example of a study where the results have been very impressive concerns a 2010 British study, titled: ‘Hand Pattern indicates Prostate Cancer Risk‘.

The researchers described:

“A protective effect of a high 2D : 4D hand pattern on prostate cancer risk was observed. High 2D : 4D hand pattern may be the marker of low prenatal androgenic activity, suggesting the importance of hormone modulation in utero on prostate cancer risk. Hand pattern might represent a simple marker for prostate cancer risk, particularly in men age under 60 years.”

And they mentioned in the abstract of the published article:

“Compared with index finger shorter than ring finger (low 2D : 4D), men with index finger longer than ring finger (high 2D : 4D) showed a negative association, suggesting a protective effect with a 33% risk reduction.”


Since the British study confirmed the results of a Korean study that was presented in 2010, the impressive (confirming) results raise the question: can these results can be used in Multi-Perspective Palm Reading?

Interestingly, in 2009 a study from Nigeria has suggested that fingerprints & palmar dermatoglyphics as well appear to display clues for prostate cancer. And in 2010 a more extended report has been published: ‘The Study of Palmar Dermatoglyphics and Cancer‘ (2010).

And because many other hand markers have been identified as significant in the perspective of the hand in cancer (including e.g.: fingernails, skin characteristics), it appears just a matter of time before scientific researchers will start studying the 2D:4D digit ratio combined with other prenatal body markers or minor physical anomalies related to the hand.

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

July 4, 2011 at 7:11 pm

The Truth about White Spots on the Fingernail: Trauma, Stress or Zinc deficiency!

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White spots on the fingernail are probably the most common ‘abnormality’ that can be observed in the nails. Many people associate them with calcium- or zinc deficiency. However, the truth is that usually they do not relate to any health problem at all: white spots are usually caused by a minor trauma!

In medical science white spots in fingernails are also known as ‘leukonychia punctata’ – which related to the presence of nucleated keratinocytes.

NOTICE: Narrow white lines in the nails are known as ‘transverse leukonychia’.

Usually white spots are caused by random minor trauma (including: such as pushing nail cuticles, or ‘nervous’ cuticle picking), and therefore it is not surprizing at all that white spots are relatively common in the hands of children!

White spots & zinc deficiency?

 Despite that white spots typically are the result of a minor physical trauma, studies have shown that sometimes white spots can be the result of a zinc deficiency – so that part of the ‘folklore’ has a ground! (See for example: Fingernail white spots: possible zinc deficiency)

Interestingly, in this perspective there even appears to be a connection between zinc definciency & trauma: stress! And in the field of palm reading professional palm readers have observed that white spots typically manifest in the fingernails when people experience a higher amount of stress than they usually do.

But in general, one should not expect to find a zinc deficiency when a person has only a few white spots. Because actually, a number of conditions can arise from a lack of zinc. One of the most important, which also lead to its discovery, was the stunting of growth and the lack of sexual development in adolescent boys; adding zinc to the diet brought about a rapid improvement. Skin complaints such as dermatitis and a condition called acrodermatitis in babies may result from deficiency, and there may be slow healing of burns and wounds. So zinc deficiency may show up as white spots or bands on fingernails, but probably only when other conditions manifest as well!

More details are discussed in the following topic at the Modern Hand Reading Forum:

White spots & calcium deficiency?

 This part of the ‘folklore’ is not true. The Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition reports:

“There is no evidence to support a relationship between the white flecks and calcium or any other nutritional deficiency. Of course it is possible that people who have white flecks in their fingernails may coincidentally be deficient in calcium. White spots in fingernails may result from minor damage caused by bumping the nails into hard surfaces like bench tops or machinery. These white flecks are different from the white bands that are observed in nails of some undernourished children in developing countries, and in people who have low blood protein levels for various reasons.”

Conclusion: white spots do NOT indicate a calcium deficiency!

What are the most common nail disorders?
Fingernail disorders & medical hand analysis!

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

June 30, 2011 at 1:33 am

Dr. Erina Lee Describes How to Use Hands in Building Relationships!

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As a research scientist, Dr. Lee is responsible for the international relationships research at eHarmony. In the following article she described how the hands can become involved in building relationships.

Whether they’re soft and manicured, strong and calloused, weathered and wrinkled—hands come in all shapes and sizes and can often say a lot about you. They can reveal the tattered fingernails of nervous nail biter, the orange fingers of a cheese puff lover, or the worn hands of a grandmother. And when you look even closer at the many lines and wrinkles, is it possible that your hands can reveal even more? Some people believe that clues to our basic selves can be found in the details of our hands. But do our hands really tell us anything of importance about who we really are? Is it possible that the numerous bumps and ridges unique to every hand hold some insight into our level of intelligence or into our love lives?

In an eternal quest for self-discovery, people have looked towards palm readers, among other mystics, to see if the lines in their hands really tell them something meaningful about themselves and their future. In current times, people turn to internet quizzes and online palm reading to make sense of the heart and life lines and the shape of their hands. Although these tests and quizzes can be fun, when put to the test of empirical science, most of these claims and predictions cannot be verified. Furthermore, these uncorroborated predictions about personality traits and future events leave palmistry in the category of a pseudoscience.

 Despite the inaccuracy of palm readings, however, there are aspects of the hands that have been studied empirically, including finger length. When looking at the palm of your hand, fingers straight together, you will likely notice a difference between your second (index) and fourth (ring) fingers. On average women have longer index fingers, compared to ring fingers while men have longer ring fingers compared to index fingers. This association between the two fingers, called the 2D:4D ratio, is related to levels of androgen exposure (a sex hormone higher in men) in the womb. That means that the amount of male hormones a fetus is exposed to determines this very specific detail of finger length in the hands. The precise mechanism by which androgen works is not entirely clear, but in general most theorists believe that increasing androgen exposure will masculinize a fetus. There is also some evidence suggesting that either too much or too little androgen can be feminizing to the fetus.

Because androgen exposure is related to sexual development and masculinization, researchers have begun to wonder if the 2D:4D ratio, as a marker of hormone exposure, may also predict other characteristics. Hormone exposure has been linked to things like general physical health, cognitive abilities, personality, job preferences, attractiveness, and sexual orientation. While the 2D:4D ratio may relate to these developmental characteristics, thus far the evidence supporting such a link is at best described as mixed. For example, there has been much attention dedicated to whether the 2D:4D ratio relates to sexual orientation. While there have been several studies in this area, some have shown no differences between heterosexual and homosexual men in their 2D:4D ratios (e.g., Williams et al., 2000), and others, like Lippa, have shown heterosexual men having lower 2D:4D ratios compared to homosexual men. Similarly with other characteristics like personality and attraction, the research findings have been fairly inconsistent.

 Another aspect of the hands that have been conclusively studied are the ridges, the ones that cover the palms and fingers, the ones that make up our unique fingerprints. The study of these ridges is called dermatoglyphics. Similar to the finger length, these ridges are known to be established earlier in the embryonic development, while the fetus is still in the womb. Researchers have shown dermatoglyphic differences between non-deficient people and those with cognitive or genetic abnormalities, like schizophrenia, Down’s syndrome, and intellectual disability. For example, individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia show fewer ridges between two specific points under the second and third fingers [a-b ridge count] compared to non-schizophrenic controls (Bramon et al., 2005). These findings support the idea that changes in the prenatal environment can display its effects in multiple ways, including changes in cognitive development and ridges of the hands. However, the findings do not assume that all people with fewer ridges have cognitive deficiencies.

To summarize, we do know that specific details in our hands are affected by early hormonal exposure and other environmental influences in the womb. And we know that this early exposure also affects other aspects of our development. While it is intriguing to speculate further that details in our hands can predict aspects of our personality or behavior, these conjectures have not been empirically supported. It’s also likely that there are more direct measures of personality, intelligence, and behavioral traits rather than the hands. But even though you can’t currently rely on your hands to unlock all of your mysteries, one thing you can count on is more studies and discussion about them to come.

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

June 24, 2011 at 2:27 am

FINGERTIP BIOMETRY – Fingertips Signal Clues for Schizophrenia!

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Many studies have revealed that syndromes & diseases become manifest in hand functions & many aspects in the morphology of the hands. Interestingly, a closer look a the studies performed so far indicates that for the hand in schizophrenia the significance of the fingertips is more important than in other disorders!

A person diagnosed with schizophrenia may experience hallucinations (most reported are hearing voices), delusions (often bizarre or persecutory in nature), and disorganized thinking and speech. But there are no symptoms which are seen in all schizophrenic patients.

 In order to understand the connection between hands and schizophrenia thorougly, it is important to be aware of the essential difference between the so-calledpositive symptoms‘ and ‘negative symptoms. Because some of the fingertip characteristics in schizophrenia are associated with only category of the symptoms! (More details will be revealed later)

NOTICE:  The ‘positive symptoms’ in schizoprenia are those symptoms that most individuals do not normally experience but are present in people with schizophrenia (such as: hallucinations & disordered speech). And the ‘negative symptoms‘ are deficits of normal emotional responses or of other thought processes, and respond less well to medication (such as: blunted affect & poverty of speech).


A closer study of the reports published so far, unveals that in schizophrenia at least 5 dimensions of the fingertips  provide significant clues, including:


– 1a: extralimital triradii (prevalence: 6.6% in schizophrenics vs. 1.5% in controls);
– 1b: fingerprint type asymmetry on 3 or more fingers.


– small & underdeveloped (prevalence: 18.8% in schizophrenics vs. 2.0% in controls).


– 3a: short length is typical (prevalence: unknown);
– 3b: spatulate is typical (prevalence: 42.4% in schizophrenics vs 21.7% in controls).


– blood vessels in proximal nail fold are visible (prevalence: 20-70% in schizophrenics vs. 3-7% in controls);


– excessive (prevalence: unknown);

(The sources for the percentages are listed in the article: How to make a Palm Reading Assessment


Interestingly, there appears to be a connection as well regarding how schizophrenia is linked with the brain! Because after Penfield described in his cortical homunculus (see the picture on the right) in the 1940’s how the primary somatosensory cortex is linked with e.g. the fingertips, brain studies have later revealed that schizophrenia is often featured with abnormalities in the same region of the brain (+ other near located parts of the brain, including: the thalamus & frontal lobe). 


The following summary shows that only three out of the five fingertip dimensions that provide significant clues for schizophrenia, also display significant clues in 6 other diseases & syndromes that are well known for displaying significant hand markers. Only rheumatoid arthritis provides clues in these three fingertip dimensions!


Significant for the hand in Down syndrome, the hand in diabetes mellitus, the hand in fragile-X syndrome, and the hand in rheumatoid arthritis.


Significiant for the hand in Down syndrome, the hand in diabetes mellitus, the hand in Marfan syndrome, the hand in psoriasis, and the hand in rheumatoid arthritis.


Significant for the hand in Marfan syndrome, the hand in psoriasis, and the hand in rheumatoid arthritis.


No significant markers for any of the six studied diseases & syndromes.


No significant markers for any of the six studied diseases & syndromes.

These materials indicate that a significant part of the correlations between the hands & schizophrenia is found at the fingertips. To be continued!

Penrose's brain homunculus describes how the fingertips relate to the primary somatosensory cortex & the primary somatomotoric cortex.

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

June 12, 2011 at 10:22 pm

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