Palm Reading Perspectives

Multi-Perspective Palm Reading: About Hands & how to make a Hand-Diagnosis

Archive for the ‘palm lines’ Category

Hand Assessment Chart: A palm reading profile via 36 hand features!

leave a comment »


Aristole described: ‘the hand is the organ of the organs’. Later, in medical science the hand became recognized to represent the most differentiated external part of the body. This implicates that an assessment of the hand is a rather complex (arbitrary) task. In order to simplify the task an ‘assessment chart’ was developed based on the principles described by Multi-Perspective Palm Reading.

The ‘assessment chart’ (see above) presents an overview of 36 key-features of the hand, the significance of all individual hand markers involved has been confirmed in scientific studies – though the significance of course varies and depends on the theme for which a hand feature is used to make a (hand) assessment.

The chart is divided in 8 sections, one for each of the 7 hand dimensions (including: dermatoglyphics, finger length, lines, motorics, nails, shape & skin) – NOTICE: the dimension ‘dermatoglyphics’ is divided in a sub-section describing the fingerprints + a sub-section describing palmar dermatoglyphics.

Learn more about the background, purpose & principles of Multi-Perspective Palm Reading!

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

February 9, 2013 at 1:02 am

A ‘Hand Model’ for recognizing Extraverts & Introverts!

with one comment

Hand model for recognizing Extraversion (extraverts) & Introversion (introverts).

The large majority of people (80%) can best be described displaying a mixture of ‘extravert’ and ‘introvert’ behaviors. However, about 10% of people tend to show consistent ‘extravert’ behavior (and a likewise percentage show ‘introvert’ behavior). Can the tendency towards extraversion and introversion be recognized from the hands of an individual?

A Dutch study (some results have already been reported in earlier posts) suggests the answer is: yes!

The picture above displays a ‘Hand Model for Extraversion’, which results from a multi-perspective hand study including 27 extraverts and 21 introverts (all Dutch citizens). The results e.g. point out:

“A discriminative analysis has pointed out that the ‘Hand Model for Extraversion’ can identify 85.4% of the subjects (41 out of 48) correctly as a HIGH of LOW scorer.”

More details:

6 Hand Signs for Extraverions / Introversion

 

Surprizing results?

Various earlier studies have reported results that now appear to make sense in the perspective of this new ‘Hand Model for Extraversion’:

– Sheldon’s ‘ectotonic’ somatotype is associated with introversion  (a summary is presented HERE)

– Low 2D:4D digit ratio has been associated with extraversion & sensation seeking (conflicting results have been reported over the years)

– Simian crease has been associated with introversion (more details HERE)

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

January 13, 2013 at 6:12 pm

TOP 10 Hand Signs indicative for Schizophrenia!

with 2 comments

A phantom picture for the hand in schizophrenia.

 

– THE TOP 10 HAND SIGNS FOR RECOGNIZING SCHIZOPHRENIA –

This TOP 10 is composed from a list of 37 hand signs for Schizophrenia, and the hand signs are ranked by Log Odds Ratio – which are calculated from the prevalence (%) among Schizophrenics & controls.

1 – Excessive accessory creases [Log Odds Ratio = +3.40]
2 – Pinky: imobility (ankylosis)  [Log Odds Ratio = +3.02]
3 – Lack of expression / rigid expression [Log Odds Ratio = +2.77]
4 – Nail fold plexus visibility [Log Odds Ratio = +2.74]
5 – Sydney line [Log Odds Ratio = +2.45]
6 – Nails: small & underdeveloped (rudimentary) [Log Odds Ratio = +2.43]
7 – Chaotic arrangement of secundary creases [Log Odds Ratio = +2.32]
8 – Simian crease [Log Odds Ratio = +2.27]
9 – Atypical handedness [Log Odds Ratio = +1.80]
10 – Nails: excessively curved outwards (hyperconcex nails) [Log Odds Ratio = +1.74]


It is interesting to notice here that 4 of the 10 hand signs relate to the fingertips (see hand signs 1, 4, 6 and 10). And additionally 4 of the 10 hand signs relate to the hand lines.

And it is fascinating to notice that these TOP 10 hand signs significant for Schizophrenia is a mix of hand features that relate to both the palm (5 hand signs) and fingers (6 hand signs) – hand sign one relates to both the palm and the fingers.

And these 10 hand signs also relate to five of the seven perspectives described by Multi-Perspective Palm Reading, including: the primary, secundary- & accessory lines (4 hand signs), fingernails & nailfold (3 hand sign), hand motorics (2 hand sign), and morphology (1 hand sign).

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

July 29, 2011 at 11:10 pm

TOP 10 Hand Signs indicative for Fragile-X syndrome!

with 2 comments

A pair of hands of a female person who has Fragile-X syndrome.

 

– THE TOP 10 HAND SIGNS FOR RECOGNIZING FRAGILE-X SYNDROME –

This TOP 10 is composed from a list of 34 hand signs for Fragile-X syndrome, and the hand signs are ranked by Log Odds Ratio – which are calculated from the prevalence (%) among people who have Fragile-X syndrome & controls.

1 – Sydney line [Log Odds Ratio = +3.63]
2 – Ridge line A: ends btw. finger 5 & heart line [Log Odds Ratio = + 3.44]
3 – Triradius b: missing (or ridge line B is ‘abortive’) [Log Odds Ratio = +3.32]
4 – Fingerprints: radial loop on thumb [Log Odds Ratio = +3.28]
5 – Ridge line C: ‘abortive’ [end close to triradius c] [Log Odds Ratio = +3.22]
6 – Simian crease [Log Odds Ratio = +3.08]
7 – Double-jointed thumbs (hypermobility) [Log Odds Ratio = +2.73]
8 – Fingerprints: arch on ring finger [Log Odds Ratio = +2.24]
9 – Fingerprints: arch on pinky finger (in males only) [Log Odds Ratio = +2.14]
10 – Palmar triradius d: missing [Log Odds Ratio = +2.10]


It is interesting to notice here that 7 of the 10 hand signs relate to the upper half of the hand (the zone below the finger + the fingerprints), and additionally the major palmar lines (head line & heart line often manifest as a simian crease or Sydney line) play a significant role.

And it is fascinating to notice that these TOP 10 hand signs significant for Fragile-X syndrome is a mix of hand features that relate to both the palm (7 hand signs) and fingers (3 hand signs).

And these 10 hand signs also relate to five of the seven perspectives described by Multi-Perspective Palm Reading, including: the dermatoglyphics (7 hand signs), major palmar lines (2 hand signs), and hand motorics (1 hand sign).


NOTICE: At a later moment a likewise TOP 10 will be presented for hand signs that are indicative for autism – about 3% of people who have autism also have fragile-X syndrome!

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

July 19, 2011 at 12:59 pm

The Sydney Line & the Simian Crease are like ‘Fraternal Twins’!

with one comment

Normal palm creases - simian crease - Sydney line.

 Many people are fimiliar with the concept of a simian crease, but there is a likewise fascinating line that has a likewise significance: the Sydney line. In modern medical science both the simian crease & the Sydney line became known as a ‘minor physical anomaly’!

In a 1967 Belgian study Vrydagh-Laoureux pointed out that next to the well-known simian crease (or ‘simian line’ – which became well-known for it’s significance in Down syndrome), there is actually another hand line variant that is associated with related to Down’s syndrome. In the Belgian study this line was described as an ‘extended proximal palmar crease’.

NOTICE: In the traditional palmistry vocabulary this line is often described as: an ‘extended’ or very long head line.

Interestingly, only one year later Australian researchers (Purvis-Smith & Menser, 1968) found that this fascinating palmar line is also frequently found in the hands of patients with congenital rubella – and from that point this ‘fraternal twins line’ of the simian crease has been named: the Sydney line (or sometimes named: ‘Sydney crease’). This twin-analogy could become valuable because many people often find it difficult to discriminate a simian line from a Sydney line!

Example of the Sydney line presented by Purvis-Smith (1972).

Purvis-Smith defined the Sydney line as follows:

“A sydney line occurs where the proximal transverse crease extends beyond the midline axis of the fifth finger towards the ulnar border of the palm the ulnar border of the palm.” (Purvis-Smith, 1972) 


MINOR PHYSICAL ANOMALIES:

At the end of 20 century a new trend became appearant within the medical scientific community. Researchers began study so-called ‘minor physical anomalies‘ – which concern typically harmless inborn physical markers (that are typically associated with a specific prenatal period) – that have been associated in various disorders.

And especially in the 21 century this approach became popular among researchers who are studying the etiology of e.g. autism, ADHD, Down syndrome, hypoxia & schizophrenia.


MULTI-PERSPECTIVE PALM READING:

Multi-Perspective Palm Reading demonstrates how the Sydney line & simian crease can be understood as a likewise hand line markers. Because (so far) a wide range of studies indicates that in far most diseases & syndromes where the simian crease has been recognized as a significant body marker… the Sydney line became recognized as a likewise significant body marker.

This pattern is seen e.g. in: diabetes mellitus, Down syndrome, fragile-X syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and schizophrenia!

Finally, discussion in the Modern Hand Reading Forum have shown that – despite the fact that a Sydney line and a simian line can never be observed in one hand – for many people it quite hard to discriminate a Sydney line from a simian crease. The picture below presents a few fundamental clues which could become helpful to understand the essential components of both lines.

NOTICE: A ‘common hand’ is featured with a life line [I], a head line [II], and a heart line [III]; and various hand line variations can be summarized with the following formulas [IIx = extended head line; II+III = simian crease]:

• COMMON HAND = I + II + III
SYDNEY LINE = I + IIx + III
SIMIAN LINE = I + II-III

Obviously, there is a fundamental difference between the Sydney line and simian crease – therefore it appears more appropriate to describe them as ’fraternal twin lines’ instead of ‘identical twin lines’; because while they have a common nature… their manifestion shape is definitiely not identical.


More details are discussed in the following discussion:

http://www.modernhandreadingforum.com/t861p120-how-to-discriminate-a-simian-crease-from-a-sydney-line-and-a-suwon-crease

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

June 25, 2011 at 3:27 am

Why do Physicians check the Hand Lines of Newborn Babies?

with 47 comments

Normal hand lines.

Why do physicians check the hand lines of newborn babies? Most newborns have two major creases on the palm, neither of which completely extend from one side of the palm to the other. However, a common variant, found in approximately 4% of western newborns, a transverse palmar crease is frequently inherited as a familial trait. Although single palmar creases are also associated with the hand in Down syndrome and other genetic disorders, the absence of other abnormalities on physical exam should reassure the examiner that no further evaluation is necessary.

 

Abnormal hand lines: a 'single palmar transverse crease', a.k.a. a simian line.

The pattern of palmar creases varies substantially within the general population. The formation of palmar creases, which occurs between the second and fifth months of prenatal development, depends e.g. on fetal movement. Once the palmar creases are formed, they remain unchanged throughout life.

More subtle normal variations of palmar creases can occur for a variety of reasons, including family background, age, and race. Many physicians are aware of the association between single transverse or bridged palmar creases, previously known as simian creases and Sydney creases, respectively, and the occurrence of Down syndrome. Although approximately 45% of patients who have Down syndrome have single transverse palmar creases, this finding occurs unilaterally (one hand) in 4% and bilaterally (both hands) in 1% of the general Caucasian population.

HAND LINES IN CHINA:

However, in the Chinese population, single transverse palmar creases may be considered a normal phenotypic variant; a recent study found that 16.8% of 3,345 healthy Chinese newborns had unilateral single transverse creases and 6.6% had bilateral single transverse creases.

Despite the high frequency of single transverse palmar creases in certain populations, aberrations in the flexion creases of the hands have the potential to signify abnormal fetal development. The association of abnormal flexion creases and various congenital disorders has been reported frequently in the literature. Studies have shown an increased incidence of single transverse palmar crease in children who have chromosome abnormalities and in low-birthweight infants. Therefore, it is reasonable to search for other congenital anomalies when evaluating an infant who has a single transverse palmar crease after taking into account the patient’s race and familial background.

When the crease occurs in isolation, however, no further evaluation is indicated.

HAND STRENGTH:

Interestingly, these is also evidence that palmar creases (hand lines) and hand motorics are directly related!

In 2010 researchers from Korea reported results which suggest that union of hand lines (palm lines) appears to correlate with hand grip strength. And interestingly, a few months later a report from France presented results which suggest that hand strenght can be predicted from hand circumference alone. So, combining both reports indicates that a talent for hand strenght could very well be found in people who have a large hand circumference + fused hand lines, such as seen in simian line! An interesting hypothesis, which is suitable to be tested for it’s accuracy in the fields of modern palm reading.

Additionally, it might be interesting to notice here that the hand lines of apes (primates) are characterized by the presence of multiple ‘fused’ transverse crease. And Gorillas who are known as the strongest species among the primates have the widest (shortest) hand shape of all apes & primates.

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

June 1, 2011 at 12:12 am

How to classify the palmar lines: the simian line, Sydney line & the Suwon crease!

with 17 comments

The study of the palmar lines [folding creases] traces back to the ancient civilisations of the Chinese and Indians as early as 3,000 years B.C. Historically the palmar lines have been adopted as the most important ‘tool’ of the classic Indian palmist with the purpose for ‘the guidance of humanity’. This explains why in all regions of the world the palmar lines became synonymous with the stigma of fortune telling (advocated by so-called ‘predictive palmistry’) – and subsequently debarring the hand lines from the scientific courts.

However, since the end of the 19th century the hand lines have been adopted by scientific researchers for other purposes, including: anthropological classification, personal identification (though the fingerprints are more well-known for this purpose), and hand lines also have a diagnostic purpose!

The combination of the heart line (distal transverse crease) & head line (proximal transverse crease) could be described as representing the most important aspect of the palm lines. The typical characteristics of these two so-called ‘transverse creases‘ (= heart line + head line) can be described as follows (see also the picture above):

• COMMON LINES: The heart line & the head line typically manifest as 2 unconnected lines, and only in human hands these lines typically do not cross the full palm (in the primate palm there are usually mulitiple horizontal lines which cross the full palm).

• SYDNEY LINE: The Sydney line can be recognized by the presence of an extended head line which crosses the full palm, combined with the presence of a normal heart line (both lines are required not to connect/fuse with eachother). NOTICE: From a scientific point, in medical science the Sydney line has been recognized in medical science as a ‘minor physical anomaly’ (MPA), and it became also known as a typical marker for e.g. the hand in Down syndrome, the hand in fragile-X syndrome, the hand in psoriasis & the hand in Schizophrenia. The name‘Sydney line’ was introduced in 1968 by Australian researcher S.G. Purvis-Smith who reported a high prevalance of Sydney lines in patients with congenital rubella. 

• EXTENDED HEART LINE: The extended heart line can be recognized by the presence of a very long heart line which crosses the full palm, combined with the presence of a normal head line (both lines are required not to connect/fuse with eachother). NOTICE: From a scientific point of view there is not much know about the extended heart line.

• SIMIAN CREASE: The simian crease can be recognized by the presence of a fusion between the head line and the heart line – resulting in the impression that one of both lines is missing. NOTICE: From a scientific point, in medical science the simian line has been recognized as a ‘minor physical anomaly’ (MPA), and it became also known as a typical marker for e.g. many syndromes (including Down syndrome) and many diseases such as the hand diabetes mellitusthe hand in rheumatoid arthritis. The name simian line was introduced in 1877 by French physician Paul Broca who described it as an unusual characteristic for the human hand.


• SUWON CREASE:
The Suwon crease can be recognized by the presence of two complete head lines (not a splitting head line, nor an interrupted head line), and the upper head line fuses/connects with the heart line. NOTICE: The history of the Suwon crease is still very young: it was first described in 2010 by Korean researchers, who found it only in 0.7% of a large Korean sample of 3.532 male hands (in the 1664 female hands it was never observed).


Read more about how hand lines relate to intelligence & personality related characteristics:

http://www.handresearch.com/diagnostics/hand-line-studies-formations-in-lines.htm

An advanced definition of various types of palmar creases.

 

The Korean researchers have presented in 2010 a new detailed method for classifying the various types of palmar lines, which includes some interesting elements which can be applied in Multi-Perspective Palm Reading:

 
“Definition of major and minor palm creases. Major palm creases are defined as follows. Radial longitudinal crease (I) becomes distinct according to the flexion of carpometacarpal joints of the thumb. Proximal (II) and distal transverse creases (III) become distinct according to the flexion of the metacarpophalangeal joints of the second to fifth fingers. Minor palm creases are defined as palm creases which are narrower than the two times of the epidermal groove width in palmprints (1), apart from major palm creases (2), crossing major palm creases (3), or leading to major palm creases by the sharpened end (4).”

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

May 25, 2011 at 10:30 pm

SIMIAN LINE – Can the lines in the palm or your hand predict your health or your future?

with 10 comments

The simian line became known as the most well known ‘uncommon’ palmar line variant, and when it is present in a hand it appears as if one of the normal lines is missing. The simian lines is the result of a fusion between the two major ‘palmar transverse creases’: in the fields of palmistry these are also known as the ‘head line’ (in medical science: distal transverse crease) and the ‘heart line’ (in medical science: proximal transverse crease).  About 3% of Western populations have a simian line in one of both hands, however in populations from Asia this percentage may be up to above 10%.

The word ‘simian line’ has a connotation with the hands of primates (simians), which are often featured with multiple likewise horizontal creases that cross the full palm.

And for this reason people often prefer to use other words to refer to the simian line. The most common simian line synonyms in daily language are: simian crease, simian fold, ape crease or the four finger line. In the scientific literature the simian line is usually named as: single palmar transverse crease or four finger line. 

MEDICAL DISORDERS:

The simian line is most well-known for it’s significance in Down’s syndrome (40%). However, the truth is that the medical disorders associated with simian line are not only seen in the most common chromosomal disorders including e.g.: fragile-X syndrome (18%), Klinefelter syndrome (12%), Turner syndrome (27%) & Marfan syndrome). But the simian line is also more often seen in the most common medical disorders, such as: diabetes mellitus (10%), psoriasis (12%) & rheumatoid arthritis (18%).


HAND LINES
 & DERMATOGLYPHICS:

Understanding the nature of palmar creases requires a consideration of the palmar dermatoglyphics as well, which concern the fine ridges & grooves in the skin that can be seen in the  palm or your hand with the bare eye (assuming that you have normal eyesight). Because both the palmar creases & the dermatoglyphics largely develop in the 2nd and 3th month of pregnancy under the influences of growth stress forces in the volar skin.

Dermatoglyphics: AtD-angles in trisomy syndromes (trisomy 21 = Down syndrome).

Few people are aware… that the ‘troublesome’ character of the simian line depends significantly on the dermatoglyphics in the so-called mount of Moon (in medical science: hypothenar). For, the high prevalence of the simian line in diseases & syndromes is typically featured with multiple deltas (triradii) and often a high positioned axial triradius, which results in a high AtD-angle. See the figure on the right: all listed trisomy syndromes are also known for a very high prevalance of the simian crease. Therefor, in order to understand the nature of a simian line in the hand(s) of an individual – an analysis of other hand features is a first requirement: the simian line on it’s own means … nothing!

BEHAVIOR, CHARACTER & TEMPERAMENT:

Scientific research R.S. Bali has presented in his book ‘Anthropology of Crease Morphogenesis‘ a summary of studies which have presented significant results for the simian line in the perspective of criminal behavior, character & temperament. But even quite a few celebrities have a simian line!

The Simian Line (2000)

‘THE SIMIAN LINE’ – THE MOVIE:

Can the lines in the palm or your hand predict your health or your future? The impact of the simian line is not only significant in the fields of palm reading & scientific research. For sure, the simian line has for touched the lives of  many individuals, and this has even resulted in a movie titled: ‘ The Simian Line‘ (2000). A short synopsis:

“An eccentric palm reader predicts that one of the couples attending an intimate dinner party will end their relationship before the year is over, sparking confusion and doubt amongst the guests, in the tender romantic comedy SIMIAN LINE. The star studded cast includes Harry Connick Jr., Cindy Crawford, Tyne Daly, William Hurt, Monica Keena, Dylan Bruno, Samantha Mathis, Lynn Redgrave, Jamey Sheridan and Eric Stoltz.”

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

May 23, 2011 at 7:50 pm

40 Common hand characteristics: how many do you have?

with 3 comments

40 Common hand characteristics

How to recognize common hand characteristics from uncommon hand characteristics?

The picture above provides a point of reference: it describes 40 typical hand characteristics that can be described as ‘common’: 20 characteristics for the right hand + 20 characteristics for the left hand.

As a matter of fact, there are quite a few other common hand characteristic. However, the combination presented in the picture above illustrates which hand features (e.g. fingerprint types) are found most commonly in which zone of the hand. As you can seen: there are significant differences between the right- and left hand!

The 40 hand characteristics (32 dermatoglyphic + 8 line features ) include :

 • 10 Fingerprints (5 in each hand): on each finger your can find one of the four basis types of fingerprints (whorl, ulnar loop, radial loop or arch);

10 Palmar deltas – a.k.a. ‘triradii’ (5 in each hand) : one below each of the 8 fingers + the so-called ‘axial triradius’, which is usually found in the zone near the wrist on the hypothenar (mount of moon);

10 Central palmar ridge lines (5 in each hand): starting in the palmar deltas these ridge lines always first progress towards the center of the palm, but they typically exit the palm at specific locations (for example: the ridge line starting in the delta below the pinky finger exits the palm in the right hand typically between the index finger and the middle finger, however in the left hand the same ridge line tends to exit the palm between the middle finger and the ring finger);

2 Palmar loops (1 in each hand): in the right hand the palmar loop is typically found between the middle finger and the ring finger, but in the left hand the palmar loop is typically found between the ring finger and the pinky finger;

6 Major creases – a.k.a. primary hand lines (3 in each hand): which terminate independently somewhere inside the palm (= the life line, head line & heart line);

– 2 Line connections (1 in each hand): at the starting point of the life line and the head line are typically connected.


More details about these common hand characteristics are available here:

http://www.multiperspectivepalmreading.com/palm-reading-common-hand-characteristics.htm


Now… how many of these characteristics do you have?


NOTICE:
Though each of these 40 hand characteristics is quite common, nobody in the world has all these 40 characteristics!

Especially this specific combination of 10 fingerprints is actually extremely rare; because the combination seen in the left hand: one arch combined in the same hand with 2 whorls is extremely rare on itself!

 Combining this extremely rare with e.g. the radial loop + the other specific patterns on the right hand (which is seen in about 1% of all people) makes it quite unlikely that these 10 fingerprints will be observed in any person.

Finally, the anthropometric hand data presented in the picture are taken from e.g. the German BAuA, UK data from the ‘Handbook of normal physical measurements’ + 3 sources which represent large US populations. And these 40 hand characteristics together provide a new helpfull ‘point of reference’ in the perspective of Multi-Perspective Palm Reading. Especially regarding the study of hand characteristics in the so-called ‘phantom pictures’!

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

May 22, 2011 at 4:44 pm

PALMAR LINES & HAND DIAGNOSTICS – An introduction!

leave a comment »

The palmar lines

Despite the fact that the hand lines (creases) have been on the scientific anvil during the past centrury, most people still associate these mysterious wrinkles with gypsies & the stigma of fortune-telling.

 
While the biological function of the hand lines is not understood well, various branches of academic science have adopted the hand lines as a scientific tool for exploring the genetic- & biological differences between various populations around the world… and the causes of disease!
 

ANTHROPOLOGY:
 
Many people assume that hand lines are only relevant to the ‘superstitious’ palmist. However, the truth is that antropologists have studied the anatomical aspects of the palmar- & plantar creases in both human- and primate populations. Paul Broca (1877) was the first to stir up interest among anthropologists in the so-called ‘simian crease’ by introducing the ethnic element in the study of creases. And even in 2nd decade of the 21th century few people appear to be aware of the racial differences in the perspective of the hand lines.
 

MEDICAL SCIENCE:
 
The medical significance of the hand lines became appearant after Langdon-Down (1909) described the significance of the ‘simian crease’ for Down syndrome. But his observation was valued with scepsis for quite a while, until the genetic cause of Down syndrome (trisomy 21) was recognized after the discovery of the Karyotype techniques in the 1950.
 
 

Later other hand line variations – such as the ‘Sydney line’ and the ‘hockey-stick crease’ – became as well associated with other syndromes, diseases & behavior characteristics – including criminal behavior, autism, schizophrenia, etc.
 

BOOKS:

The following book is solely devoted to the scientific study of the hand lines, including the consideration of various elements that can be described as ‘building stones’ in Mult-Perspective Palm Reading):

Anthropology of Crease Morphogenesis (1991), author: R.S. Bali


Bali writes in the final chapter ‘Creases – Their Scope and Goals’ (page 361):

“… Pronouncements on the association of creases with character and temperament are bound to remain questionable. But future researches on crease features, such as crease surface area, crease splits, crease length, and crease borders, may perhaps throw some light on the relationship. The crease surface area, in term of centimetre counts, cell counts and ridge counts, makes a sufficiently sensitive scale for marking change under differential, physiological, psychological or social stresses. This interesting area of investigation remains to be explored by future researchers.”

 
 

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

May 10, 2011 at 10:03 pm

%d bloggers like this: