Posts Tagged ‘fingerprint’
In an earlier post a report was made that fingerprints reveal clues about many things – including: sexe, race, diet, lifestyle and disease. Fingerprint ridge width & the so-called ‘minituae’ provide info about sexe.
In this new report we’ll focuss on a few details in the fingerprint of the pinky finger.
Pinky fingers are usually featured with an ulnar loop:
The World Map of Fingerprints has shown that in all nations around the world the pinky fingerprint is dominated by the presence of an ‘ulnar loop’.
And in a study among 5 world populations (N=2.785) in 78% of the individuals the pinky finger is featured with an ‘ulnar loop’. The study also revealed that the effect size for fingerprints & sexe and fingerprints & ethnic difference is the largest in the pinky finger.
Other studies (Loesch, 1983) have revealed that when a pinky finger is featured with a whorl or arch, the ring finger is usually featured with the same fingerprint pattern type. In other words: the fingerprint type on the pinky finger typically highly depends on the fingerprints of the other fingers – especially the ring finger.
This implicates that the fingerprint type displayed by the little finger hardly provides any clues – because usually it’s an ‘ulnar loop’ and otherwise it correlates with the fingerprint on the ring finger.
Ridge count in pinky fingers:
However, beyond the fingerprint pattern type, another aspect of the fingerprint may reveal more specified meaningful information.
The earlier report explained how fingerprint ridge density & minituae (dermatoglyphics) correlate with sexe – especially when applied to the pinky finger.
But there is another revealing aspects: the so-called ‘ridge count’.
For example: in 1989 a study revealed that the ridge count in the left pinky finger can become highly meaningful when it is summarized with the ridge count of the five finger of the right hand minus the ridge count of the five fingers of the left hand. In a population of people with congenital heart defects in Down syndrome, the summation outcome was typically (in 10 out of 13 individuals) lower than the ridge count of the left pinky finger itself. While among the control population (people who have Down syndrome without congenital heart defects) the same result was relatively rare (in only 1 out of 38 individuals).
One can understand this rather remarkable example of palm reading in the perspective of the fact that usually in the fingers of the right hand the ridge count is typically higher than in the fingers of the left hand (this effect is often largest in the thumb).
Read more about how these results & dermatoglyphics can be understand in the perspective of hand developments & life in the uterus:
Fingerprints mark us out as individuals and leave telltale signs of our presence on every object that we touch. However, what else can a fingerprints reveal? Authors of many palm reading books suggest that a single fingerprint represents certain ‘fixed’ qualities. However, there has never been presented any evidence which support such specific claim. And despite the fact that certain fingerprint characteristics correlate highly for sexe an individual, even the sexe can not always be determined from a single fingerprint!
What can a single fingerprint reveal? As a matter of fact, there are many myths about fingerprints. For quite a while scientists assumed that the purpose of fingerprints should be associated with giving ‘grip’ to the hand. But even this ‘grip’ theory became doubtful according a 2009 study.
CAN A SINGLE FINGERPRINT REVEAL IF IT BELONGS TO A MALE OR FEMALE?
The current state of knowledge is that only the distal region of a fingerprint correlates with sexe. Studies have revealed that fingerprint ridge densities of 12 or less (per 25 mm) is usually a male, while fingerprint ridge densities of 15 or more (per 25 mm) is usually a female. But fingerprint ridge density alone can not reliably predict the sexe in large samples (below 75%).
However, there is a long list of tiny fingerprint characteristics that are also significant for sexe; and combining ridge density with those characteristics will usually result in a correct identification of sexe – especially when applied to the pinky finger.
A summary of major & minutiae ridge characteristics that vary among males & females:
1 – Finger size: larger in males;
2 – Ridge dots: more common in males (34%) than in females (20%);
3 – Short ridges: more common in males (38%) than in females (23%);
4 – Ridge spurs: more common in males (32%) than in females (26%);
5 – No ridge endings: more common in females (8% ) than in males (2%);
6 – Ridge lakes: more common in females (45%) than in males (35%);
7 – Ridge thickness to valley thickness ratio (RTVTR): lower in females;
8 – Ridge count: lower in females.
The papillary ridges in every fingerprint are unique to each individual, and these characteristics do not change over time (after fixation during the 2nd and 3th prenatal month). Therefore fingerprints became recognized as a usefull tool for identification. However, the certain details in a fingerprint + the distribution of the pattern types among the 10 fingers can reveal much more!
In general, one could say that beyond identity fingerprints can reveal clues that relate to: sexe, race, diet, lifestyle, and disease. Below follows an introduction to how fingerprints are related to these themes.
FINGERPRINTS & SEXE:
Biometric studies have shown that fingerprint type distributions & palmar dermatoglyphics vary significantly among both sexes: females have more arches, and males have more whorls. However, another stricking sexe-difference is that females usually have more ridges per cm2.
FINGERPRINTS & RACE:
Anthropologic studies have revealed that fingerprint type distributions vary significantly among the populations around the world. More details have been reported in the posts about the Fingerprint World Map & the World Populations.
FINGERPRINTS & DIET:
A few years ago reports have been made that using commercial gelatine based tape (which was already used by police) and high-tech chemical analysis under spectroscopic microscope – provides a detailed picture of the chemical- & metabolic make-up found on a fingerprint. The study revealed that specific amino acids indicated whether the “suspect” was a vegetarian or meat-eater, and different fatty acid profiles suggested provided clues to their racial origins.
FINGERPRINTS & LIFESTYLE:
The same microscope method (based on the study of chemicals & metabolics featured with a fingerprint) can also unveal e.g. the use of substances, including: cigarettes, drugs & grooming products. And even age can be determined roughly with this method!
FINGERPRINTS & DISEASE:
Scientists have stated that the scientific study of dermatoglyphics in an individual (via: the palmar dermatoglyphics & the fingerprints) can tell doctors about the risk for certain diseases. Multi-Perspective Palm Reading describes the link between fingerprints & diseases by detail!
Every person has unique fingerprint. In the forensic sciences the process of comparing two fingerprints – known as ‘dactyloscopy‘ – is focussed on identifying tiny characteristics in the friction ridge skin. However, fingerprint pattern types are not unique at all: they e.g. fingerprint pattern types highly depend on sexe & race. An international study points out that the fingerprint type in the pointer finger is most unique!
In order to study the interactive effects of sexe & race in fingerprints (dermatoglyphics), a study has been conducted on fingerprint samples in 5 world populations (2.785 people) – including: Americans (A), British (B), Chinese (C), Iranians (I), and Nigerians (N).
Only the so-called Vucetich fingerprint types were considered in this study, which is founded on the number of triradii + their location:
– whorls are characterised by the presence of 2 triradii;
– ulnar loops are characterised by the presence of 1 triradius positioned at the thumb-side;
– radial loops are characterised by the presence of 1 triradius positioned at the pinky-side;
– arches are characterised by the absense of a triradius.
The results of the study are shown in the picture below:
FINGERPRINTS & SEXE:
International studies in the past have shown that fingerprint types in females almost universally differ from males in having more arches. And usually females also differ in bearing fewer whorls, and typically they also tend to have slightly less radial loops.
The new study shows that in all 5 populations arches are much more common in females: +44.9% (compared to males); and whorls are indeed less common in females: – 10.5% (compared to males). And as expected the sexe-effects in radial loops (-0.6%) and ulnar loops is much smaller (+2.3%).
Interestingly, the most typical sexe-effect for arches is by far less prominent in the index finger: +11.5% (compared to the other fingers: thumb: +57.6%, middle finger: +69.4%, ring finger: +58.4%, pinky finger: +123.1%). This indicates that the fingerprint type in the index finger is least ruled by sexe.
FINGERPRINTS & RACE:
The Fingerprints World Map has shown that studies in the past have shown that the occurence of fingerprint types varies significantly in the populations around the world: e.g. Asians are known for a higher occurence of whorls, and Africans for a higher occurence of arches.
The new study confirms these earlier findings:
– Whorls are by far most common in Chinese males (48.2%) and females (45.4%);
– Arches are by far most common in Nigerian females (13.7%) and males (9.1%).
Interestingly again, the details show that the most typical racial-effects are least prominent in the index finger – in the picture this is e.g. also indicated by the relatively small variance for the ulnar loops among the races!
POINTER FINGER HAS THE HIGHEST VARIABILITY:
Summarizing, the study has shown that sexe & race have relatively small effects on the fingerprint type of the pointer finger.
And this might actually makes sense, because the pointer finger [index finger] is known for displaying the highest level of variability – e.g. arches & radial loops are known for manifesting by far most often on the index finger (and the same is true for less common fingerprint types such as: the tented arches & accidentals).
Recently the F.B.I. (the US Federal Bureau of Investigation) has adopted a new computer system which allows them to conduct 165,000 fingerprint checks a day – more than twice faster than the previous system did! More interestingly, fingerprints vary significantly among the ethnic populations around the world!
The FBI has begun using a new computer system that takes just seven minutes to search a database of 70 million sets of fingerprints for a possible match with the fingerprints of a suspect. That’s down from the old average search time of 17 minutes. In a recent side-by-side, five-day test of the new and old computer systems, the new FBI system turned up 910 additional matches between prints submitted to the bureau and prints in the FBI’s database from earlier arrests. Engineers computed the accuracy rate of the new system at 99.6 percent, compared with the rate of 92 percent for the old system, which had been in use for more than a decade.
THE FBI DESCRIBES 8 FINGERPRINT TYPES:
Each single fingerprint in a person has unique minitue characteristics. However, fingerprints also have characteristics which do not vary among every person! These characteristics are described by the fingerprint ‘types’.
However, in time various fingerprint type systems have been developed. Sir Francis Galton presented at the end of the 19th century the classic model for fingerprint type recognition – the model was based on the number of deltas (triradii) that are present in a fingerprint, result in 3 types: whorls, loops and arches.
But since the 80’s the FBI’s model for fingerprint classification became generally accepted as the best model to study the fingerprint types. In their classic work ‘The Science of Fingerprints‘, the FBI presents the following 8 fingerprint types:
ETHNIC POPULATIONS & FINGERPRINT TYPES:
The occurence of the individual fingerprint types vary among the populations around the world. This was e.g. described by the Fingerprint World Map, which was earlier presented.
And in the perspective of Multi-Perspective Palm Reading it is always important to be aware that fingerprint type partly depends on ethnicity!
In 2005 a US study focussed on the local variations of the 7 most common fingerprint types: the whorl, ulnar loop, radial loop, tented arch, arch, central pocket loop, and the double loop (only the least common of the FBI types, the ‘accidental whorl’, was not included in the study).
The study was conducted among a sample of 20.000 US people, including: 5.000 asians, 5.000 blacks, 5.000 hispanics, and 5.000 whites.
And it is very interesting to see that this ‘local’ sample from the US state Georgia, confirms the patters that are also seen in the 1943 ‘fingerprints world map’ + the samples which I have featured in my article:
– Whorls are BY FAR most common among asians (and on the ring finger);
– Ulnar loops are most common among blacks & whites (and on the pinky finger);
– Radial loops are BY FAR most common among whites (and BY FAR on the index finger);
– Arches are most common among in blacks & hispanics (and on the index finger).
More news about fingerprints is available here:
The key-results from the 2005 article are presented in the two tables below:
How to recognize common hand characteristics from uncommon hand characteristics?
The picture above provides a point of reference: it describes 40 typical hand characteristics that can be described as ‘common': 20 characteristics for the right hand + 20 characteristics for the left hand.
As a matter of fact, there are quite a few other common hand characteristic. However, the combination presented in the picture above illustrates which hand features (e.g. fingerprint types) are found most commonly in which zone of the hand. As you can seen: there are significant differences between the right- and left hand!
The 40 hand characteristics (32 dermatoglyphic + 8 line features ) include :
• 10 Fingerprints (5 in each hand): on each finger your can find one of the four basis types of fingerprints (whorl, ulnar loop, radial loop or arch);
• 10 Palmar deltas – a.k.a. ‘triradii’ (5 in each hand) : one below each of the 8 fingers + the so-called ‘axial triradius’, which is usually found in the zone near the wrist on the hypothenar (mount of moon);
– 10 Central palmar ridge lines (5 in each hand): starting in the palmar deltas these ridge lines always first progress towards the center of the palm, but they typically exit the palm at specific locations (for example: the ridge line starting in the delta below the pinky finger exits the palm in the right hand typically between the index finger and the middle finger, however in the left hand the same ridge line tends to exit the palm between the middle finger and the ring finger);
– 2 Palmar loops (1 in each hand): in the right hand the palmar loop is typically found between the middle finger and the ring finger, but in the left hand the palmar loop is typically found between the ring finger and the pinky finger;
– 2 Line connections (1 in each hand): at the starting point of the life line and the head line are typically connected.
More details about these common hand characteristics are available here:
NOTICE: Though each of these 40 hand characteristics is quite common, nobody in the world has all these 40 characteristics!
Especially this specific combination of 10 fingerprints is actually extremely rare; because the combination seen in the left hand: one arch combined in the same hand with 2 whorls is extremely rare on itself!
Combining this extremely rare with e.g. the radial loop + the other specific patterns on the right hand (which is seen in about 1% of all people) makes it quite unlikely that these 10 fingerprints will be observed in any person.
Finally, the anthropometric hand data presented in the picture are taken from e.g. the German BAuA, UK data from the ‘Handbook of normal physical measurements’ + 3 sources which represent large US populations. And these 40 hand characteristics together provide a new helpfull ‘point of reference’ in the perspective of Multi-Perspective Palm Reading. Especially regarding the study of hand characteristics in the so-called ‘phantom pictures’!
The science of fingerprint interpretation has still a long road ahead before it’s value will be recognized everywhere around the world. Most people are only aware of the fact that each single fingerprint has it’s own unique characteristics – which makes every fingerprint unique in any person. However, beyond the aspect of personal identification, there is another spectrum hidden in the characteristics of the finger glyphs: a perspective that relates to the qualities of your chromosomes & genes… and your health!
The unique characteristics of your fingerprints were already established before you were born. But while it is relatively easy to recognize/describe the uniqueness of a single fingerprint, it is much harder to ‘read’ other info from a fingerprint.
THE ART OF COMBINATION:
Using fingerprint for diagnostic matters requires an understanding of how to discriminate common fingerprint characteristics from rare- or even ‘suspected’ characteristics – in a diagnostic context.
Medical science learns us that unusual dermatoglyphic patterns (usually a combination of fingerprints & palmar dermatoglyphs) often relate to genetic disorders. But is it possible to make a reliable diagnosis from the fingerprints only?
Studies around the world nearly always indicate that fingerprints show typical variations among males and females: whorls are more common in the hands of males, arches are more common in the hands of females. And regarding loops: radial loops are usually slightly more common in males, and ulnar loops in females.
Fingerprint studies around the world have also confirmed that fingerprints also vary with the location in the world. Asians are known for having more whorls, North-Europeans are known for having more loops, and certain tribes in Central Africa are known for having more arches.
But there is another specific characteristic that has hardly ever been described thoroughly. Because the major fingerprint types typically manifest in different ratios among the fingers.
A few examples:
• ULNAR LOOPS are in all world populations (males & females) seen in the large majority on the pinky finger. And a likewise pattern is seen for the middle finger.
• WHORLS are usually the most dominant type on the thumb, index finger & ring finger; but the prevalance of whorls is typically only slightly higher than the prevalance of ulnar loops.
• RADIAL LOOPS are typically only seen on the index finger (though these are also not uncommon on the middle finger).
• ARCHES are most often seen on the index finger, but they are also not uncommon for the middle finger & thumb.
THE UNIVERSAL PATTERN:
Fingerprint studies have indicated that in nearly all regions of the world the loop is found to be the most common fingerprint type. And therefore the distributions for the arches & whorls become decisive.
A detailed study including the fingerprints of over 12.000 people from 12 countries around the world has revealed that fingerprints typically manifest following the so-called ‘universal pattern’: which describes that ulnar loops typically dominate the pinky & middle finger, and whorls typically dominate the thumb, index finger and ring finger – see the picture below.
Read more about how in Multi-Perspective Palm Reading fingerprints relate to e.g. autism, diabetes mellitus, Down’s syndrome, fragile-X syndrome & schizophrenia: