Palm Reading Perspectives

Multi-Perspective Palm Reading: About Hands & how to make a Hand-Diagnosis

Posts Tagged ‘schizophrenia

The Pinky Finger: A Measure for Sexe, Personality & Psychopathology!

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You probably heard about the ‘2D:4D finger ratio’ (digit ratio), which has widely been recognized as a measure for prenatal hormonal life.  Over the past years quite a few studies have revealed that this ratio between the pointer finger (2D) and the ring finger (4D) represents e.g. a correlation with various aspects of human behavior. But how about the other fingers and their ratios? An introduction about the key-role of the pinky finger (5th finger).

So far, out of the hundreds of finger-length-studies published so far, only a couple of those have been focussed on other fingers as well.

 Interestingly, the pinky finger has turned out often to play a key-role in the most significant results. A quick overview of some issues to remember:

De Bruin et al. (2011) found that a high 3D:5D ratio (= relatively short pinky finger) may reveal a clue that correlates with psychopathology. The 3D:5D ratio in boys and in girls was positively associated with scores on Externalizing Problems. Further, in girls only, the 3D:5D ratio was positively correlated to scores on Internalizing Problems.

McFadden & Bracht (2009) found that the largest effect sizes related to sexe differences (males versus females) were demonstrated in ratios that involved the pinky finger.

Gosh (2005) found that pinky finger ratio may reveal a personality clue related to the dimensions Neuroticism & Psychoticism: a tip ending below the interphalangeal crease of the ring finger (4th finger) correlates in men & women with high scores on Neuroticism & Psychoticism.

Wolff (1951) found that both an extraordinary short pinky finger and an extraordinary long pinky finger is often seen in schizophrenia. 

Additionally, one should also be aware that beyond the length of the pinky finger, quite a few other dimensions of the 5th finger (incl. clinodactyly) have been associated with various types of  medical- and neurological disorders – such as: autism. Which makes the pinky finger an important aspect to be considered in the perspective of Multi-Perspective Palm Reading.

Many more details are presented in the article:
Do not underestimate your little finger!

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

September 6, 2011 at 2:30 pm

TOP 10 Hand Signs indicative for Schizophrenia!

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A phantom picture for the hand in schizophrenia.



This TOP 10 is composed from a list of 37 hand signs for Schizophrenia, and the hand signs are ranked by Log Odds Ratio – which are calculated from the prevalence (%) among Schizophrenics & controls.

1 – Excessive accessory creases [Log Odds Ratio = +3.40]
2 – Pinky: imobility (ankylosis)  [Log Odds Ratio = +3.02]
3 – Lack of expression / rigid expression [Log Odds Ratio = +2.77]
4 – Nail fold plexus visibility [Log Odds Ratio = +2.74]
5 – Sydney line [Log Odds Ratio = +2.45]
6 – Nails: small & underdeveloped (rudimentary) [Log Odds Ratio = +2.43]
7 – Chaotic arrangement of secundary creases [Log Odds Ratio = +2.32]
8 – Simian crease [Log Odds Ratio = +2.27]
9 – Atypical handedness [Log Odds Ratio = +1.80]
10 – Nails: excessively curved outwards (hyperconcex nails) [Log Odds Ratio = +1.74]

It is interesting to notice here that 4 of the 10 hand signs relate to the fingertips (see hand signs 1, 4, 6 and 10). And additionally 4 of the 10 hand signs relate to the hand lines.

And it is fascinating to notice that these TOP 10 hand signs significant for Schizophrenia is a mix of hand features that relate to both the palm (5 hand signs) and fingers (6 hand signs) – hand sign one relates to both the palm and the fingers.

And these 10 hand signs also relate to five of the seven perspectives described by Multi-Perspective Palm Reading, including: the primary, secundary- & accessory lines (4 hand signs), fingernails & nailfold (3 hand sign), hand motorics (2 hand sign), and morphology (1 hand sign).

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

July 29, 2011 at 11:10 pm

The Sydney Line & the Simian Crease are like ‘Fraternal Twins’!

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Normal palm creases - simian crease - Sydney line.

 Many people are fimiliar with the concept of a simian crease, but there is a likewise fascinating line that has a likewise significance: the Sydney line. In modern medical science both the simian crease & the Sydney line became known as a ‘minor physical anomaly’!

In a 1967 Belgian study Vrydagh-Laoureux pointed out that next to the well-known simian crease (or ‘simian line’ – which became well-known for it’s significance in Down syndrome), there is actually another hand line variant that is associated with related to Down’s syndrome. In the Belgian study this line was described as an ‘extended proximal palmar crease’.

NOTICE: In the traditional palmistry vocabulary this line is often described as: an ‘extended’ or very long head line.

Interestingly, only one year later Australian researchers (Purvis-Smith & Menser, 1968) found that this fascinating palmar line is also frequently found in the hands of patients with congenital rubella – and from that point this ‘fraternal twins line’ of the simian crease has been named: the Sydney line (or sometimes named: ‘Sydney crease’). This twin-analogy could become valuable because many people often find it difficult to discriminate a simian line from a Sydney line!

Example of the Sydney line presented by Purvis-Smith (1972).

Purvis-Smith defined the Sydney line as follows:

“A sydney line occurs where the proximal transverse crease extends beyond the midline axis of the fifth finger towards the ulnar border of the palm the ulnar border of the palm.” (Purvis-Smith, 1972) 


At the end of 20 century a new trend became appearant within the medical scientific community. Researchers began study so-called ‘minor physical anomalies‘ – which concern typically harmless inborn physical markers (that are typically associated with a specific prenatal period) – that have been associated in various disorders.

And especially in the 21 century this approach became popular among researchers who are studying the etiology of e.g. autism, ADHD, Down syndrome, hypoxia & schizophrenia.


Multi-Perspective Palm Reading demonstrates how the Sydney line & simian crease can be understood as a likewise hand line markers. Because (so far) a wide range of studies indicates that in far most diseases & syndromes where the simian crease has been recognized as a significant body marker… the Sydney line became recognized as a likewise significant body marker.

This pattern is seen e.g. in: diabetes mellitus, Down syndrome, fragile-X syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and schizophrenia!

Finally, discussion in the Modern Hand Reading Forum have shown that – despite the fact that a Sydney line and a simian line can never be observed in one hand – for many people it quite hard to discriminate a Sydney line from a simian crease. The picture below presents a few fundamental clues which could become helpful to understand the essential components of both lines.

NOTICE: A ‘common hand’ is featured with a life line [I], a head line [II], and a heart line [III]; and various hand line variations can be summarized with the following formulas [IIx = extended head line; II+III = simian crease]:


Obviously, there is a fundamental difference between the Sydney line and simian crease – therefore it appears more appropriate to describe them as ’fraternal twin lines’ instead of ‘identical twin lines’; because while they have a common nature… their manifestion shape is definitiely not identical.

More details are discussed in the following discussion:

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

June 25, 2011 at 3:27 am

Dr. Erina Lee Describes How to Use Hands in Building Relationships!

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As a research scientist, Dr. Lee is responsible for the international relationships research at eHarmony. In the following article she described how the hands can become involved in building relationships.

Whether they’re soft and manicured, strong and calloused, weathered and wrinkled—hands come in all shapes and sizes and can often say a lot about you. They can reveal the tattered fingernails of nervous nail biter, the orange fingers of a cheese puff lover, or the worn hands of a grandmother. And when you look even closer at the many lines and wrinkles, is it possible that your hands can reveal even more? Some people believe that clues to our basic selves can be found in the details of our hands. But do our hands really tell us anything of importance about who we really are? Is it possible that the numerous bumps and ridges unique to every hand hold some insight into our level of intelligence or into our love lives?

In an eternal quest for self-discovery, people have looked towards palm readers, among other mystics, to see if the lines in their hands really tell them something meaningful about themselves and their future. In current times, people turn to internet quizzes and online palm reading to make sense of the heart and life lines and the shape of their hands. Although these tests and quizzes can be fun, when put to the test of empirical science, most of these claims and predictions cannot be verified. Furthermore, these uncorroborated predictions about personality traits and future events leave palmistry in the category of a pseudoscience.

 Despite the inaccuracy of palm readings, however, there are aspects of the hands that have been studied empirically, including finger length. When looking at the palm of your hand, fingers straight together, you will likely notice a difference between your second (index) and fourth (ring) fingers. On average women have longer index fingers, compared to ring fingers while men have longer ring fingers compared to index fingers. This association between the two fingers, called the 2D:4D ratio, is related to levels of androgen exposure (a sex hormone higher in men) in the womb. That means that the amount of male hormones a fetus is exposed to determines this very specific detail of finger length in the hands. The precise mechanism by which androgen works is not entirely clear, but in general most theorists believe that increasing androgen exposure will masculinize a fetus. There is also some evidence suggesting that either too much or too little androgen can be feminizing to the fetus.

Because androgen exposure is related to sexual development and masculinization, researchers have begun to wonder if the 2D:4D ratio, as a marker of hormone exposure, may also predict other characteristics. Hormone exposure has been linked to things like general physical health, cognitive abilities, personality, job preferences, attractiveness, and sexual orientation. While the 2D:4D ratio may relate to these developmental characteristics, thus far the evidence supporting such a link is at best described as mixed. For example, there has been much attention dedicated to whether the 2D:4D ratio relates to sexual orientation. While there have been several studies in this area, some have shown no differences between heterosexual and homosexual men in their 2D:4D ratios (e.g., Williams et al., 2000), and others, like Lippa, have shown heterosexual men having lower 2D:4D ratios compared to homosexual men. Similarly with other characteristics like personality and attraction, the research findings have been fairly inconsistent.

 Another aspect of the hands that have been conclusively studied are the ridges, the ones that cover the palms and fingers, the ones that make up our unique fingerprints. The study of these ridges is called dermatoglyphics. Similar to the finger length, these ridges are known to be established earlier in the embryonic development, while the fetus is still in the womb. Researchers have shown dermatoglyphic differences between non-deficient people and those with cognitive or genetic abnormalities, like schizophrenia, Down’s syndrome, and intellectual disability. For example, individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia show fewer ridges between two specific points under the second and third fingers [a-b ridge count] compared to non-schizophrenic controls (Bramon et al., 2005). These findings support the idea that changes in the prenatal environment can display its effects in multiple ways, including changes in cognitive development and ridges of the hands. However, the findings do not assume that all people with fewer ridges have cognitive deficiencies.

To summarize, we do know that specific details in our hands are affected by early hormonal exposure and other environmental influences in the womb. And we know that this early exposure also affects other aspects of our development. While it is intriguing to speculate further that details in our hands can predict aspects of our personality or behavior, these conjectures have not been empirically supported. It’s also likely that there are more direct measures of personality, intelligence, and behavioral traits rather than the hands. But even though you can’t currently rely on your hands to unlock all of your mysteries, one thing you can count on is more studies and discussion about them to come.

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

June 24, 2011 at 2:27 am

FINGERTIP BIOMETRY – Fingertips Signal Clues for Schizophrenia!

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Many studies have revealed that syndromes & diseases become manifest in hand functions & many aspects in the morphology of the hands. Interestingly, a closer look a the studies performed so far indicates that for the hand in schizophrenia the significance of the fingertips is more important than in other disorders!

A person diagnosed with schizophrenia may experience hallucinations (most reported are hearing voices), delusions (often bizarre or persecutory in nature), and disorganized thinking and speech. But there are no symptoms which are seen in all schizophrenic patients.

 In order to understand the connection between hands and schizophrenia thorougly, it is important to be aware of the essential difference between the so-calledpositive symptoms‘ and ‘negative symptoms. Because some of the fingertip characteristics in schizophrenia are associated with only category of the symptoms! (More details will be revealed later)

NOTICE:  The ‘positive symptoms’ in schizoprenia are those symptoms that most individuals do not normally experience but are present in people with schizophrenia (such as: hallucinations & disordered speech). And the ‘negative symptoms‘ are deficits of normal emotional responses or of other thought processes, and respond less well to medication (such as: blunted affect & poverty of speech).


A closer study of the reports published so far, unveals that in schizophrenia at least 5 dimensions of the fingertips  provide significant clues, including:


– 1a: extralimital triradii (prevalence: 6.6% in schizophrenics vs. 1.5% in controls);
– 1b: fingerprint type asymmetry on 3 or more fingers.


– small & underdeveloped (prevalence: 18.8% in schizophrenics vs. 2.0% in controls).


– 3a: short length is typical (prevalence: unknown);
– 3b: spatulate is typical (prevalence: 42.4% in schizophrenics vs 21.7% in controls).


– blood vessels in proximal nail fold are visible (prevalence: 20-70% in schizophrenics vs. 3-7% in controls);


– excessive (prevalence: unknown);

(The sources for the percentages are listed in the article: How to make a Palm Reading Assessment


Interestingly, there appears to be a connection as well regarding how schizophrenia is linked with the brain! Because after Penfield described in his cortical homunculus (see the picture on the right) in the 1940’s how the primary somatosensory cortex is linked with e.g. the fingertips, brain studies have later revealed that schizophrenia is often featured with abnormalities in the same region of the brain (+ other near located parts of the brain, including: the thalamus & frontal lobe). 


The following summary shows that only three out of the five fingertip dimensions that provide significant clues for schizophrenia, also display significant clues in 6 other diseases & syndromes that are well known for displaying significant hand markers. Only rheumatoid arthritis provides clues in these three fingertip dimensions!


Significant for the hand in Down syndrome, the hand in diabetes mellitus, the hand in fragile-X syndrome, and the hand in rheumatoid arthritis.


Significiant for the hand in Down syndrome, the hand in diabetes mellitus, the hand in Marfan syndrome, the hand in psoriasis, and the hand in rheumatoid arthritis.


Significant for the hand in Marfan syndrome, the hand in psoriasis, and the hand in rheumatoid arthritis.


No significant markers for any of the six studied diseases & syndromes.


No significant markers for any of the six studied diseases & syndromes.

These materials indicate that a significant part of the correlations between the hands & schizophrenia is found at the fingertips. To be continued!

Penrose's brain homunculus describes how the fingertips relate to the primary somatosensory cortex & the primary somatomotoric cortex.

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

June 12, 2011 at 10:22 pm

Nailfold Blood Vessels reveal a Biological Marker for Schizophrenia!

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Visibility of the nailfold blood vessels plexus has been known for a long time as a biological marker in schizophrenia.

In an earlier post is described that schizophrenia became known for a high occurence of minor physical anomalies (MPA’s). Another example of a developmental abnormality that has been studied as a hand marker for schizophrenia, but which lies outside the scope of the traditional MPA construct, is the occurence of visibility of the blood vessels in the proximal nailfold – a.k.a. ‘nailfold plexus visibility’ (NPV – which requires the use of a microscope for proper assessment). A high level of nailfold plexus visibility is rare in the general population (occurring in 3-7% of healthy adults) while the rate of high NPV ranges from 20-70% in populations with schizophrenia (Curtis et al., 1999).

Interestingly, over the years studies have suggested this hand characteristic is specificly related to the so-called ‘negative symptoms’ in schizophrenia (which are associated with deficits of normal emotional responses or of other thought processes). And EEG studies have revealed that this nail fold blood vessel condition may mark a process associated with abnormal brain development leading to schizophrenia – including: an inverse relationship between plexus visibility and lateral ventricle size in the brain. The PVS is reliably determined and stable over time. Interrater reliabilities for PVS reportedly range from .83 to .99 (Buchanan and Jones 1969; Maricq 1966).

Taken together, researchers have concluded that findings on MPAs indicate that these minor anomalies appear to be part of some schizophrenia syndromes, representing a stable systemic or physical set of manifestations of the underlying neurodevelopmental processes that lead to the illness. This might explain why in the DSM-V the term ‘schizophrenia’ may be get replaced by the name ‘psychosis risk syndrome‘.


 The skin has a profuse blood supply, which is important in temperature regulation. The subcutaneous arteries form a network in the subcutaneous tissue, and from this is derived a subpapillary plexus in the dermis. Capillary loops in the dermal papillae arise from the subpapillary plexus, and from these loops the avascular epidermis is bathed in tissue fluid. A subpapillary plexus of venules gives the skin its pink color: the vessels become dilated when the skin is heated, and thereby make it look red.


Just like is seen in the perspective of minor physical anomalies, nailfold plexia visibility is much more common in schizophrenia than in any other form of psychopathology. Studies have revealed that nailfold plexia visibility in schizophrenia is (much) more common than in other psychotic- & mood disorders – but these other disorders also show higher occurence than seen in the general population.

Studies have also shown that that patients with schizophrenia with a highly visible plexus have greater oculomotor dysfunction, negative symptoms, symptom severity, chronic course, and neuropsychological dysfunction. Furthermore, nailfold plexus visibility appears to be at least moderately heritable.


Other studies have revealed that nail fold plexus visibility has also been linked with hand markers in rheumatoid arthritis & hand markers in psoriasis. The pronounced subpapillary plexus visibility, greater number of vessels and their elongation are indicative of rheumatoid arthritis, while shorter, fewer capillaries and especially characteristic psoriatic capillaries, when present, suggest psoriatic arthritis.

Changes of nailfold capillary patterns have been described in certain patients with systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, mixed connective tissue disease, and Raynaud’s syndrome.

NOTICE: The nail tutor demonstrates how other nail fold characteristics can be associated with specific medical problems. More details about how to recognize various stages/variants of proximal nailfold blood vessels visibility in a palm reading, are presented in the picture below.

A phantom picture for the hand in schizophrenia is available here:

Nailfold plexus examples.

Nailfold plexus changes are characterized by loss of (drop-out) nailfold capillary loops that surround the remaining, enlarged dilated capillaries. Upper left, A normal nailfold capillary pattern shows the uniform morphology and homogeneous disitribution of the small capillary loops just below the cuticle. Upper right, Capillaroscopy in a patient with systemic sclerosis illustrates dilatation of isolated capillary loops, with loss of surrounding loop structures. Lower right, The abnormal pattern is from a patient with childhood dermatomyositis. Dilated capillary loops are present, as well as areas of arborized clusters of capillary loops. Lower left, Distortion of the normal capillary loop architecture is seen in a patient with adult dermatomyositis. Note the loss of normal homogeneous distribution of the capillaries and the alterations in the morphology of the vessels, including the dilated and enlarged “giant” capillary loops.

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

June 11, 2011 at 2:13 am

The Language of the Hand in Schizophrenia!

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Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder which affects about 1% of people worldwide. People who suffer from schizophrenia experience problems perceiving the difference between real and unreal experiences – which results in psychotic experiences. And as a consequence schizophrenic people also are not able to think logically, to have normal emotional responses, and to behave normally in social situations. The hands become involved as well, because people who have schizophrenia typically also have impaired hand movement coordination.

Even brain experts are not sure what causes schizophrenia, but there is plenty of evidence which suggests that the brains are involved.


One of the most common is the dopamine hypothesis which attributes psychosis to the mind’s faulty interpretation of the misfiring of dopamineurgic neurons.

In the picture on the right presents the skull of twin persons of which one (right) is suffering on schizophrenia. It is fascinating to see the elonguation in the brain skull of the twin-person who suffers on schizophrenia. A likewise tendency is typical for the hand in schizophrenia, which tend to be long & slender!


Atypical handedness is much more often seen among schizophrenics (20%) vs. controls (3.8%), which implicates that people who suffer on schizophrenia tend to develop ambiguous preferences for different tasks. Also they tend to developed impaired hand-motor performanceright handedness is in schizophrenics often featured with non-right eye preference.


The hand in schizophrenia shows a large overlap with common hands, however in all perspectives of the hand ‘minor anomalies’ are seen much more often than in the general population. An overview of some of these typical characteristics is displayed in the ‘phantom picture’ for the hand in schizophrenia, see the picture below. However, it is not easy at all to identify a person who suffers on schizophrenia solely via a palm reading!

In order to recognize the hand of a schizophrenic person, the presence of significant hand characteristics in at least 4 perspectives of the hand is required. Both the palmar dermatoglyphics & fingerprints and the major hands lines are required to show assocatied characteristics. Plus two of the other five perspectives of the hand are required to be involved as well.

The following two articles present more details about typical hand characteristics in schizophrenia:

Phantom picture for the hand in schizophrenia.

Written by martijnvanmensvoort

June 4, 2011 at 10:47 pm

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