Posts Tagged ‘skin’
The 2D:4D digit ratio became especially popular due to the efforts of Prof. John T. Manning. Despite that the value & purpose of this hand marker has often been misunderstood, in the perspective of Multi-Perspective Palm Reading digit ratio can be used as a sensible & valuable tool!
The 2D:4D digit ratio became known as a prenatal hormonal marker, which provides a clue about the amount of testosterone and oestrogen to which each foetus has been exposed to in the womb.
This explains why the 2D: 4D digit ratio became a popular research tool among sciencitific researchers: because it provides an opportunity to study the role of prenatal hormones in the etiology of e.g. diseases & other human traits. Often the results of such studies have been ‘mis-qualified’ by reviewers & journalists as an effort to re-invent palm reading.
However, sometimes the results have been impressive… and surprizingly some researchers even have started speculating about ‘practical’ applications for the 2D:4D digit ratio.
DIGIT RATIO & PROSTATE CANCER:
An example of a study where the results have been very impressive concerns a 2010 British study, titled: ‘Hand Pattern indicates Prostate Cancer Risk‘.
The researchers described:
“A protective effect of a high 2D : 4D hand pattern on prostate cancer risk was observed. High 2D : 4D hand pattern may be the marker of low prenatal androgenic activity, suggesting the importance of hormone modulation in utero on prostate cancer risk. Hand pattern might represent a simple marker for prostate cancer risk, particularly in men age under 60 years.”
And they mentioned in the abstract of the published article:
“Compared with index finger shorter than ring finger (low 2D : 4D), men with index finger longer than ring finger (high 2D : 4D) showed a negative association, suggesting a protective effect with a 33% risk reduction.”
DIGIT RATIO & MULTI-PERSPECTIVE PALM READING:
Since the British study confirmed the results of a Korean study that was presented in 2010, the impressive (confirming) results raise the question: can these results can be used in Multi-Perspective Palm Reading?
Interestingly, in 2009 a study from Nigeria has suggested that fingerprints & palmar dermatoglyphics as well appear to display clues for prostate cancer. And in 2010 a more extended report has been published: ‘The Study of Palmar Dermatoglyphics and Cancer‘ (2010).
And because many other hand markers have been identified as significant in the perspective of the hand in cancer (including e.g.: fingernails, skin characteristics), it appears just a matter of time before scientific researchers will start studying the 2D:4D digit ratio combined with other prenatal body markers or minor physical anomalies related to the hand.
White spots on the fingernail are probably the most common ‘abnormality’ that can be observed in the nails. Many people associate them with calcium- or zinc deficiency. However, the truth is that usually they do not relate to any health problem at all: white spots are usually caused by a minor trauma!
In medical science white spots in fingernails are also known as ‘leukonychia punctata’ – which related to the presence of nucleated keratinocytes.
NOTICE: Narrow white lines in the nails are known as ‘transverse leukonychia’.
Usually white spots are caused by random minor trauma (including: such as pushing nail cuticles, or ‘nervous’ cuticle picking), and therefore it is not surprizing at all that white spots are relatively common in the hands of children!
White spots & zinc deficiency?
Despite that white spots typically are the result of a minor physical trauma, studies have shown that sometimes white spots can be the result of a zinc deficiency – so that part of the ‘folklore’ has a ground! (See for example: Fingernail white spots: possible zinc deficiency)
Interestingly, in this perspective there even appears to be a connection between zinc definciency & trauma: stress! And in the field of palm reading professional palm readers have observed that white spots typically manifest in the fingernails when people experience a higher amount of stress than they usually do.
But in general, one should not expect to find a zinc deficiency when a person has only a few white spots. Because actually, a number of conditions can arise from a lack of zinc. One of the most important, which also lead to its discovery, was the stunting of growth and the lack of sexual development in adolescent boys; adding zinc to the diet brought about a rapid improvement. Skin complaints such as dermatitis and a condition called acrodermatitis in babies may result from deficiency, and there may be slow healing of burns and wounds. So zinc deficiency may show up as white spots or bands on fingernails, but probably only when other conditions manifest as well!
More details are discussed in the following topic at the Modern Hand Reading Forum:
White spots & calcium deficiency?
This part of the ‘folklore’ is not true. The Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition reports:
“There is no evidence to support a relationship between the white flecks and calcium or any other nutritional deficiency. Of course it is possible that people who have white flecks in their fingernails may coincidentally be deficient in calcium. White spots in fingernails may result from minor damage caused by bumping the nails into hard surfaces like bench tops or machinery. These white flecks are different from the white bands that are observed in nails of some undernourished children in developing countries, and in people who have low blood protein levels for various reasons.”
Conclusion: white spots do NOT indicate a calcium deficiency!
Every person has unique fingerprint. In the forensic sciences the process of comparing two fingerprints – known as ‘dactyloscopy‘ – is focussed on identifying tiny characteristics in the friction ridge skin. However, fingerprint pattern types are not unique at all: they e.g. fingerprint pattern types highly depend on sexe & race. An international study points out that the fingerprint type in the pointer finger is most unique!
In order to study the interactive effects of sexe & race in fingerprints (dermatoglyphics), a study has been conducted on fingerprint samples in 5 world populations (2.785 people) – including: Americans (A), British (B), Chinese (C), Iranians (I), and Nigerians (N).
Only the so-called Vucetich fingerprint types were considered in this study, which is founded on the number of triradii + their location:
– whorls are characterised by the presence of 2 triradii;
– ulnar loops are characterised by the presence of 1 triradius positioned at the thumb-side;
– radial loops are characterised by the presence of 1 triradius positioned at the pinky-side;
– arches are characterised by the absense of a triradius.
The results of the study are shown in the picture below:
FINGERPRINTS & SEXE:
International studies in the past have shown that fingerprint types in females almost universally differ from males in having more arches. And usually females also differ in bearing fewer whorls, and typically they also tend to have slightly less radial loops.
The new study shows that in all 5 populations arches are much more common in females: +44.9% (compared to males); and whorls are indeed less common in females: – 10.5% (compared to males). And as expected the sexe-effects in radial loops (-0.6%) and ulnar loops is much smaller (+2.3%).
Interestingly, the most typical sexe-effect for arches is by far less prominent in the index finger: +11.5% (compared to the other fingers: thumb: +57.6%, middle finger: +69.4%, ring finger: +58.4%, pinky finger: +123.1%). This indicates that the fingerprint type in the index finger is least ruled by sexe.
FINGERPRINTS & RACE:
The Fingerprints World Map has shown that studies in the past have shown that the occurence of fingerprint types varies significantly in the populations around the world: e.g. Asians are known for a higher occurence of whorls, and Africans for a higher occurence of arches.
The new study confirms these earlier findings:
– Whorls are by far most common in Chinese males (48.2%) and females (45.4%);
– Arches are by far most common in Nigerian females (13.7%) and males (9.1%).
Interestingly again, the details show that the most typical racial-effects are least prominent in the index finger – in the picture this is e.g. also indicated by the relatively small variance for the ulnar loops among the races!
POINTER FINGER HAS THE HIGHEST VARIABILITY:
Summarizing, the study has shown that sexe & race have relatively small effects on the fingerprint type of the pointer finger.
And this might actually makes sense, because the pointer finger [index finger] is known for displaying the highest level of variability – e.g. arches & radial loops are known for manifesting by far most often on the index finger (and the same is true for less common fingerprint types such as: the tented arches & accidentals).
The simian line became known as the most well known ‘uncommon’ palmar line variant, and when it is present in a hand it appears as if one of the normal lines is missing. The simian lines is the result of a fusion between the two major ‘palmar transverse creases’: in the fields of palmistry these are also known as the ‘head line’ (in medical science: distal transverse crease) and the ‘heart line’ (in medical science: proximal transverse crease). About 3% of Western populations have a simian line in one of both hands, however in populations from Asia this percentage may be up to above 10%.
And for this reason people often prefer to use other words to refer to the simian line. The most common simian line synonyms in daily language are: simian crease, simian fold, ape crease or the four finger line. In the scientific literature the simian line is usually named as: single palmar transverse crease or four finger line.
The simian line is most well-known for it’s significance in Down’s syndrome (40%). However, the truth is that the medical disorders associated with simian line are not only seen in the most common chromosomal disorders including e.g.: fragile-X syndrome (18%), Klinefelter syndrome (12%), Turner syndrome (27%) & Marfan syndrome). But the simian line is also more often seen in the most common medical disorders, such as: diabetes mellitus (10%), psoriasis (12%) & rheumatoid arthritis (18%).
Understanding the nature of palmar creases requires a consideration of the palmar dermatoglyphics as well, which concern the fine ridges & grooves in the skin that can be seen in the palm or your hand with the bare eye (assuming that you have normal eyesight). Because both the palmar creases & the dermatoglyphics largely develop in the 2nd and 3th month of pregnancy under the influences of growth stress forces in the volar skin.
Few people are aware… that the ‘troublesome’ character of the simian line depends significantly on the dermatoglyphics in the so-called mount of Moon (in medical science: hypothenar). For, the high prevalence of the simian line in diseases & syndromes is typically featured with multiple deltas (triradii) and often a high positioned axial triradius, which results in a high AtD-angle. See the figure on the right: all listed trisomy syndromes are also known for a very high prevalance of the simian crease. Therefor, in order to understand the nature of a simian line in the hand(s) of an individual – an analysis of other hand features is a first requirement: the simian line on it’s own means … nothing!
BEHAVIOR, CHARACTER & TEMPERAMENT:
Scientific research R.S. Bali has presented in his book ‘Anthropology of Crease Morphogenesis‘ a summary of studies which have presented significant results for the simian line in the perspective of criminal behavior, character & temperament. But even quite a few celebrities have a simian line!
‘THE SIMIAN LINE’ – THE MOVIE:
Can the lines in the palm or your hand predict your health or your future? The impact of the simian line is not only significant in the fields of palm reading & scientific research. For sure, the simian line has for touched the lives of many individuals, and this has even resulted in a movie titled: ‘ The Simian Line‘ (2000). A short synopsis:
“An eccentric palm reader predicts that one of the couples attending an intimate dinner party will end their relationship before the year is over, sparking confusion and doubt amongst the guests, in the tender romantic comedy SIMIAN LINE. The star studded cast includes Harry Connick Jr., Cindy Crawford, Tyne Daly, William Hurt, Monica Keena, Dylan Bruno, Samantha Mathis, Lynn Redgrave, Jamey Sheridan and Eric Stoltz.”
After describing in the last post a few hand conditions (eczema & granuloma anulare) that may look scary but are relatively harmless, in this new post we focuss on a fex examples of hand skin conditions that typically indicate serious health problems.
The following 3 hand conditions were e.g. presented in a Medscape slideshow, and they can usually be described as ‘worrisome’:
Lichen Planus (see photo above) manifest typically as a rash made up of reddish-purple, flat-topped bumps that may itch like crazy. It usually appears on the wrists (or on the ankles of the feet, but may be on the lower back, neck, legs, and genitals). The cause of Lichen Planus isn’t known — but if you have it, you’ll need to get liver tests. It could be a sign of hepatitis C.
Tripe Palms (see photo above) describes a skin condition in which the skin of the palm becomes thick and velvety-white with pronounced folds in the lines of the hand. The skin resembles boiled tripe. It’s a sign of cancer. If only the palms are involved, it’s most likely lung cancer. If tripe palms is accompanied by acanthosis nigricans, it’s most likely gastric cancer.
NEPHROGENIC SYSTEMIC FIBROSIS / WOODEN HANDS:
Nephrogenic System Fibrosis (see photo above) was first described in 1997. Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis starts ussually as a brown discoloration and indentation of the lower arms and legs. Very soon, the hands and feet become brown and like wood. NOTICE: Sometimes there’s also a small yellow spot in the eye. Researchers only recently found that the gadolinium contrast agent used during MRI exams triggers this condition in some patients with kidney failure.
Read more about the role of skin quality conditions in Multiple-Perspective Palm Reading:
Many hand skin conditions do not indicate that anything else is wrong with you. Hand eczema can happen to anyone typically manifests as dry hands. Dry hands that persist despite the use of lotions and creams may be a sign of a condition called hand eczema or dermatitis. However, hand eczema may sometimes be difficult or impossible to differentiate from more worrisome hand conditions, such as: atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, and psoriasis, which also commonly involve the hands. And even a biopsy for all these conditions may not result in a definitive diagnosis.
Below follows an overview of ‘scary’ hand conditions that are usually harmless.
Hand eczema is a term used for different types of hand skin inflammation (dermatitis). The symptoms of eczema typically include itchy, reddened, dry skin. Many things can cause this type of skin irritation such as dryness, soaps and detergents, cleaning products, rubber gloves and even cosmetic lotions and creams. Since the skin is itchy, prolonged scratching often occurs which in turn leads to reddened, irritated, scaling skin or to a leathery thickening of the skin (sometimes called lichenification). Cracking and weeping of the skin may also occur and open sores may become infected. And there are basically two types of dermatitis: ‘contact dermatitis’ and ‘atopic dermatitis’. The causes of eczema have not been fully determined, but allergies, stress, irritants, and genetic factors are all associated as possible causes for the development of this hand condition (see the photo below).
Granuloma annulare is a chronic skin disease consisting of a rash with reddish bumps arranged in a circle or ring. Granuloma annulare is different from warts. A cryotherapy treatment typically will not produce permanent results. And this skin condition most often affects children, young and older adults and it is also slightly more common in females. This hand skin condition is usually seen in otherwise healthy people – though sometime it is associated with diabetes, thyroid diseases, or auto-immune diseases.
But there are other hand skin conditions that can be relatively harmless, such as: red skin, blisters, microinfarcts, little spots & vasculitis.
More info about these conditions & their role in ‘Multi-Perspective Palm Reading’ is available here:
Your skin can be a window to your underlying health, says Joseph Jorizzo, MD, one of the experts who wrote the book ‘Dermatological Signs of Internal Disease‘. Many underlying health conditions — some very serious — first appear as skin problems.
In an earlier post you were able to read how your fingernails can be used as a barometer for your (past) health – during the past sixe months. As a matter of fact, medical science classifies the fingernails as a part of your outer skin systems which surrounds your body. So it should not be surprizing that your skin can provide clues about your health as well.
But first of all: not all skin conditions are scary! Many skin conditions do not indicate that anything else is wrong with you. For example, granuloma annulare is raised, reddish or flesh-colored bumps forming ring patterns on the hands and feet. They usually go away within two years, and don’t mean anything is wrong with you.
The difference betwen ‘harmless’ hand skin conditions & ‘worrisome’ hand skin conditions will be discussed in the next series of posts.
Read more about the role of skin conditions in Multiple-Perspective Palm Reading: